Rubia tinctorum L. - syn.Rubia tinctoria Salisbs. - Rubiaceae
dyer's madder, Indian madder, Färberröte, Krapp, Färberkrapp
Perennial evergreen herb, native to Western Asia, East and Southeastern Europe, naturalized in North America; rhizomes stout, woody, red; leaves in whorls of 4-6, papery to subleathery, lanceolate, lanceolate-oblong, or elliptic-oblong; flowers yellow to greenish yellow, rotate-funnelform, glabrous, tube ca. 1mm; berry black, 4×4mm.
„Rubia tinctorum is the madder of commerce, cultivated for the dye derived from its rhizomes and roots, and still used in textiles and fine paints.“
„The plant's roots contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as 1,3-dihydroxyanthraquinone (purpuroxanthin), 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (quinizarin), 1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone (purpurin) and 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (alizarin). This last compound gives it its red colour to a textile dye known as Rose madder. It was also used as a colourant, especially for paint, that is referred to as Madder lake. The substance was also derived from another species, Rubia cordifolia.“ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubia_tinctorum
„Twenty compounds were isolated from the roots of Rubia tinctorum which are used as a commercial source of madder color. Among these compounds, mollugin, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone , 2-ethoxymethyl-anthraquinone, rubiadin, 1,3-dihydroxyanthraquinone, 7-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone, lucidin, 1-methoxymethylanthraquinone and lucidin-3-O-primeveroside showed mutagenicity with Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and/or TA 98.“
[The mutagenic constituents of Rubia tinctorum., Kawasaki, Y., Goda, Y., Yoshihira, K., Chem Pharm Bull.(Tokyo), 40(6), 1992, 1504-1509]
The admission of madder root containing drugs was withdrawn in Germany in 1993.
[Pharm. Ztg. 138 (1993), 834]
„Madder roots contain mainly the primverosides (6-O-β-d-xylanopyranosyl-β-d-glucose) of alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone), lucidin (1,3-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone), purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxy-anthraquinone) and quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone).“
[Identification and quantification of the constituents of madder root by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography., Boldizsár, I., Szűcs, Z., Füzfai, Z., Molnár-Perl, I., Journal of Chromatography A, 1133(1), 2006, 259-274] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967306015664
„Renal cell tumors were also increased with 0.04% alizarin, although at lower incidence than with rubiadin. In addition, glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive liver cell foci and large intestinal dysplasias were significantly increased with 0.04% rubiadin. These results indicate that both rubiadin and alizarin can increase renal preneoplastic lesions, the potential of the latter being weaker. Rubiadin may also target the liver and large intestine, suggesting a major role in madder color-induced carcinogenicity. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 2261–2267)“
[Carcinogenic potential of alizarin and rubiadin, components of madder color, in a rat medium‐term multi‐organ bioassay., Inoue, K., Yoshida, M., Takahashi, M., Fujimoto, H., Shibutani, M., Hirose, M., Nishikawa, A., Cancer science, 100(12), 2009, 2261-2267] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01342.x/full
Dried roots (Radix Rubiae tinctorum, Radix Alizari) are formerly used to treat diseases of the bladder and kidney, as diuretic and antidiarrhoeic. The roots contain anthraquinone glucosides (2-3.5%, mainly alizarin-2beta-primveroside, rubian) which are also absorbed when ingested, and the splittet off di- and trihyhdroxy anthraquinones are excreted through the kidneys. The urine gets a pink color; the substances contained therein have been considered anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic.
[Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Springer 2010]
Spach,E., Histoire naturelle des végétaux, Atlas (coloured version), t.56 (1834-1847) [M.elle F.Legendre]