Pterocarpus santalinus L. - Fabaceae - red sandal wood, red sanders(wood), Rotsandelholz, Kaliaturholz
Tree, endemic to South India, cultivated also in Philippines.
„This tree is valued for the rich red color of its wood. The wood is not aromatic. The tree is not to be confused with the aromatic Santalum Sandalwood trees that grow natively in South India… The wood has historically been valued in China, particularly during the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty periods, and is referred to in Chinese as zitan (紫檀) and spelt tzu-t'an by earlier western authors such Gustav Ecke, who introduced classical Chinese furniture to the west.“
„The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide.“
[Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals., Rao, B.K., Giri, R., Kesavulu, M.M., Apparao, C.H., Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol.74(1), 2001, 69-74]
P.santalinus provides resin that is traded as kino (like P.marsupium, good quality).
[Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Springer 2010]
„Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.f., commonly known as Red sanders, belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is endemic to India and considered globally endangered, with illegal harvest being a key threat. The plant is renowned for its characteristic timber of exquisite color, beauty, and superlative technical qualities. The red wood yields a natural dye santalin, which is used in coloring pharmaceutical preparations and foodstuffs. In the traditional system of medicine, the decoction prepared from the heartwood is attributed various medicinal properties. It has been used in inducing vomiting and treating eye diseases, mental aberrations, and ulcers. The heartwood of Red sanders is known to have antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, tonic, hemorrhage, dysentery, aphrodisiac, and diaphoretic activities. It has also been used as a cooling agent. Ethanol extract of stem bark was reported to possess anti-hyperglycaemic activity.“
[Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. f.(Rath handun): a review of its botany, uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology., Walpola, B.C., Subasinghe, S., Yoon, M.H., Arunakumara, K., Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, 54(4), 2011, 495-500]
Köhler, F.E., Medizinal Pflanzen, vol. 2: t. 176 (1890)