Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton et al. - syn. Abies mariana Mill. - Pinaceae
black spruce, bog spruce, Schwarzfichte
Eevergreen coniferous tree, up to 15m tall, native to North America (Canada).
The steam-distilled essential oil of the foliage contained bornyl acetate (34.2%) as main component, together with α-pinene (12.9%), and camphene (16.4%). Minor components were δ-3-carene (5.8%), limonene (4.1%), myrcene (3.7%), β-pinene (2.6%), β-phellandrene (1.0%), isoborneol (0.1%), terpinen-4-ol (0.4%), α-terpineol (1.2%), and trans-carveol (0.1%). Main components found in the hydrosol were α-terpineol, borneol, bornyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenol, camphenehydrate, and 1.8-cineole.
[Garneau, François-Xavier, et al. „Chemical Composition of the Hydrosol and the Essential Oil of Three Different Species of the Pinaceae Family: Picea glauca (Moench) Voss., Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP, and Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.“ Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 15.2 (2012): 227-236]
„Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of Abies balsamea, Picea mariana and Tsuga canadensis leaf essential oils assigned bornyl acetate as a major peak in A.balsamea and P.mariana, while isobornyl acetate was identified as the major peak in T.canadensis. Though these two isomers elute closely on GC, their characteristic mass spectra allow unequivocal structural assignment…
[Bernart, Matthew W. „Closely eluting bornyl and isobornyl acetates are chemotaxonomic markers in the Pinaceae by virtue of their unique mass spectra.“ American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products 4.2 (2016): 41-46] http://www.essencejournal.com/vol4/issue2/pdf/4-3-1.1.pdf
“…the essential oil of Black spruce (Picea mariana) bark residue was obtained using two types of hydrodistillations: steam distillation (SD) and water distillation (WD). Both gave similar yields and compositions as analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The essential oil composition is turpentine-like with the predominance of α-pinene (40.6% SD; 40.5% WD) and β-pinene (33.9% SD; 25.9% WD), followed by hydrocarbon monoterpenes β-phellandrene (4.8% SD; 3.6% WD), 3-carene (4.1% SD; 3.1% WD), and limonene (4.0% SD; 3.7% WD). Hydrosol’s composition is rich in oxygenated compounds with α-terpineol (29.3% SD; 33.5% WD), trans-pinocarveol (5.2% SD; 3.7% WD), terpinen-4-ol (5.0% SD; 5.8% WD), verbenone (4.9% SD; 5.4% WD), borneol (4.9% SD; 3.9% WD), and pinocarvone (4.6% SD; 4.3% WD). These black spruce bark essential oils differ in composition from those from needles, which are commercially available and rich in bornyl acetate.„
[Francezon, Nellie, and Tatjana Stevanovic. „Chemical Composition of Essential Oil and Hydrosol from Picea mariana Bark Residue.“ BioResources 12.2 (2017): 2635-2645]
The steam-distilled essential oil of black spruce may be influenced by distillation time and chipping (making the wood into wood chips prior to distillation). Essential oil from chipped material contained (Z)-3-hexenol (0.05-0.06%; unchipped: 0%) and lower amounts of the quality-determing bornyl acetate (25-30%; unchipped: 35-26%).
[Benoit Roger, Alexis St-Gelais, „Modulating Essential Oil Composition with Distillation Parameters: An Approach to Balance the Oil Composition for Therapeutic: Use An Example with Picea mariana (Mill.) Essential Oil“, Vol. 7 Issue 1 Summer 2018 IJPHA, 19-24]
Picea mariana (Miller) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
Sargent, C.S., The Silva of North America, vol.12 t.596 (1898) [C.E. Faxon]
© Rolf Marschner (2015), www.botanische-spaziergaenge.at