Ziziphus jujuba Mill. - Rhamnaceae - syn. Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) H.Karst., Ziziphus vulgaris Lam., Ziziphus sativa Gaertn.
jujube, red date, chinese date, Chinesische Jujube, Kahlblättrige Jujube, Chinesische Dattel, Brustbeere
Spiny shrub, native to southern Asia, up to 10m high; leaves alternate, lanceolate-ovate, glabrous, notched, with 3 strong veins; flowers small, yellow; berries ovoid, mature ones reddish-brown.
This shrub is cultivated in Italy and Spain. The delicious and nutritious (caloric, ascorbic acid) fruits are eaten fresh or dried. Tea from dried fruits is used to treat bronchitis, hence the german name „Brustbeere“.
„Sedative principles of the seeds of Zizyphus vulgaris var.spinosus have been characterized as sanjoinine-A (frangufoline), nuciferine and their congeners. Also, heat treatment of sanjoinine-A produced a more active artifact, sanjoinine-Ahl, which provides a scientific basis for heat-processing (roasting) of this Oriental medicine.“
[Alkaloids are the sedative principles of the seeds of Zizyphus vulgaris var.spinosus. Byung Hoon Han, Myung Hwan Park. Archives of Pharmacal Research, December 1987, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 203-207]
„… used traditionally as tonic and aphrodisiac and sometimes as Hypnotic-sedative and Anxiolytic, anticancer (Melanoma cells), Antifungal, Antibacterial, Antiulcer, Anti-inflammatory, Cognitive, Antispastic, Antifertility/contraception, Hypotensive and Antinephritic, Cardiotonic, Antioxidant, Immunostimulant, and Wound healing properties. It possesses allied compounds viz. Ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin-bioflavonoids and Pectin A and various chemical substances like Mauritine-A; Amphibine-H; Jubanine-A; Jubanine-B; Mucronine-D and Nummularine-B. Sativanine-E. Frangufoline, Ziziphine-A to Q, betulinic acid colubrinic acid, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-transpcoumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 3-O-trans-pcoumaroylmaslinic acid, oleanolic acid, betulonic acid, oleanonic acid, zizyberenalic acid and betulinic acid, jujubosides A, B, A1 B1 and C and acetyljujuboside B and the protojujubosides A, B and B1, saponin, ziziphin, from the dried leaves of Z. jujube - 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2)-aarabinopyranosyl-20-O- (2,3)-di-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl jujubogenin. Saponin from leaves and stem are 3-O-((2-O-alpha-D-furopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)- alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl) jujubogenin and 6'-sinapoylspinosin, 6'-feruloylspinosin and 6'-p-coumaroylspinosin. The present review discusses photo-chemistry, pharmacology, medicinal properties and biological activities of Za jujuba and its usage in different ailments.“
[Mahajan R T, Chopda M Z. Phyto-Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mill- A plant review. Phcog Rev 2009 ;3:320-9]
Ziziphus jujuba as Ziziphus vulgaris Lam., d’ Orbigny, C.V.D., Dictionnaire universel d’histoire naturelle, plates vol.3 t.37 [Dicotylédones 31] (1841-1849)