Zanthoxylum simulans Hance - Rutaceae - Chinese pepper, Chinese prickly-ash, Sichuan pepper, Szechuan pepper, Täuschende Stachelesche, Szechuanpfeffer
Spreading shrub or small tree, up to 7m high, native to Taiwan and eastern China; fruit a berry with rough reddish brown shell that splits open to release the black seeds from inside.
„It is one of several species of Zanthoxylum from which Sichuan pepper is produced… The husk or hull (pericarp) around the seeds may be used whole, especially in Szechuan cuisine, and the finely ground powder is one of the ingredients for five-spice powder…Sichuan pepper has a unique aroma and flavour that is not hot or pungent like black, white or chili peppers. Instead, it has slight lemony overtones and creates a tingly numbness in the mouth (caused by its 3% of hydroxy-α-sanshool) that sets the stage for hot spices.“ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sichuan_pepper
Other sources of the spice „Sichuan pepper“ with similar aroma constituents (linalool, α-terpineol, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, geraniol, hydroxy-α-sanshool) are Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium.
[Aroma constituents and alkylamides of red and green Huajiao (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium). Yang, Xiaogen. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry Vol.56 (5), 2008, 1689-1696]
„The volatiles were isolated from fruits of Zanthoxylum simulans Hance using steam distillation and liquid carbon dioxide extraction… The yield in steam distillation was 1.69% (w/w), while that in liquid carbon dioxide extraction was 6.38% (w/w). The major volatile components (>10%) found in both volatiles were β-myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, and (Z)-β-ocimene. Some minor components, including isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and α-terpinene, were not found in the extract of liquid carbon dioxide.“
[Characteristics of the steam-distilled oil and carbon dioxide extract of Zanthoxylum simulans fruits. Chyau, Charng-Cherng, Jeng-Leun Mau, and Chung-May Wu. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Vol.44 (4), 1996, 1096-1099]
Sichuan pepper, CC BY-SA 3.0, Author: Andreas Kraska