Valeriana celtica L. - Caprifoliaceae - golden nard, valerian spikenard, Echter Speick, (Echt-) Speik
Perennial herb, 5-15(25)cm high, native to the Alps (mainly Italia between Mont Cenis and Monte Rosa); Switzerland: fruits glabrous = var. glabra ENDL.; short hairs = var. pilosa ENDL.; Austria: subsp. norica VIERH.; Montenegro: subsp. pancii (HAL. ET BALD.)WEBERLING
[Käsermann, Christoph. „LR (su) Valeriana celtica L. - Valériane celte - Valerianaceae.“ (1999)] https://www.infoflora.ch/assets/content/documents/merkblaetter_artenschutz_de/vale_celt_d.pdf
„It is endemic to the Eastern Alps (V. celtica subsp. norica) and to the Graian and Pennine Alps… Until the 1930s, it was extensively harvested for export to Asia for use in perfumes. The root has been used as a folk remedy as a nerve tonic.“ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valeriana_celtica
The dried leaves was pulverized and subjected to steam distillation to yield 0.22% of a yellowish essential oil (0.22%) with patchoulol (26.2%), isovaleric acid (15.2%), and seychellene (5.95) as main components.
[Bicchi, Carlo, et al. „Studies on the essential oil of Valeriana celtica L.“ Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 6.4 (1983): 213-215]
„The plant has a long tradition in perfumery…. The plant is also well known as a traditional remedy
against adverse effects related to the nervous system. Soaps, creams and teas prepared from its roots were
used for their nerve-strengthening properties. Furthermore, the dried plants were stuffed into linen presses and used as an insect repellent.“
Main components (identified) of the hydrodistilled essential oil of underground plant parts (Valeriana celtica ssp. norica and Valeriana celtica ssp. pernnina) were patchoulol (5.4-19.8%), spathulenol (4.0-13.2%), aromadendrene (3.1-6.5%), and seychellene (1.4-4.0%).
[Novak, Johannes, et al. „Essential oil composition of underground parts of Valeriana celtica ssp. from Austria and Italy.“ Flavour and fragrance journal 15.1 (2000): 40-42]
N.J. von Jacquin, Collectanea Austriaca, vol.1 p.24 t.1 (1786)