Urtica dioica L. - Urticaceae - stinging nettle, greater nettle, Große Brennessel

Perennial dioecious herb, up to 1.50m high, native to the northern hemisphere; whole plant with stinging hairs; stem always erect, with edges; leaves with dark green upper side, not shiny, cordate, serrate; flowers unisexual, greenish, staminate and pistillate on same or different plants.

„An extract of Urtica dioica folium (IDS 23, Rheuma-Hek), monographed positively for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases and with known effects in partial inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro, was investigated with respect to effects of the extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood of healthy volunteers. In the assay system used, LPS stimulated human whole blood showed a straight increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion reaching maximum concentrations within 24 h following a plateau and slight decrease up to 65 h, respectively. The concentrations of these cytokines was strongly positively correlated with the number of monocytes/macrophages of each volunteer… These further findings on the pharmacological mechanism of action of Urticae dioica folia may explain the positive effects of this extract in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.“
[Ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion in human whole blood by extractum urticae dioicae foliorum., Obertreis B1, Ruttkowski T, Teucher T, Behnke B, Schmitz H., Arzneimittelforschung. Vol46(4), 1996, 389-94]

The herb is sometimes used as galactogogue. „The galactagogue herbs used by the women in this study included blessed thistle, fennel, fenugreek, raspberry leaf, and stinging nettle. Though the use of these herbs was supported by their historical role in human lactation, these herbs – and galactagogue herbs in general – have been subjected to almost no clinical or experimental study , and their mechanisms of action are largely unknown.“
[Galactagogoue herbs: A Qualitative study and review, Rachel Emma Westfall, Canadian Journal of Midwifery Research and Practice, Vol.2(2), 2003, 22-27]

„Leaves [Urticae folium] and roots [Urticae radix] are used in supportive treatment of rheumatic complaints, and to a lesser extent inflammation of the urinary tract and the prevention and treatment of kidney gravel. Dried roots or root extracts are used to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate… nettle lectins appear to be an immun stimulant. Controlled clinical studies support efficacy for the tretment of benign prostate hypertrophy and the traditional diuretic and anti-inflammatory uses in treating arthritis.“
[Medicinal Plants of the World. Ben-Erik Van Wyk and Michael Wink, Pretoria 2004, 332]

„Aqueous extract of urtica dioica results in significant inhibition on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity of prostate tissue. Conclusion: ADA inhibition by urtica dioica extract might be one of the mechanisms in the observed beneficial effect of urtica dioica in prostate cancer.“
[Aqueous extract of Urtica dioica makes significant inhibition on adenosine deaminase activity in prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer., Durak, I., Biri, H., Devrim, E., Sözen, S., Avcı, A., Cancer biology & therapy, Vol.3(9), 2004, 855-857]

„To determine the effects of Urtica dioica for symptomatic relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),… a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial of Urtica dioica with placebo in 620 patients was conducted. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), Serum Prostatic-Specific Antigen (PSA), testosterone levels, and prostate size… Five hundred fifty-eight patients (90%) completed the study… By intention-to-treat analysis, at the end of the 6-month trial, 232 (81%) of 287 patients in the Urtica dioica group reported improved LUTS compared with 43 (16%) of 271 patients in the placebo group (P<0.001). Both IPSS and Qmax showed greater improvement with drugs than with placebo. The IPSS went from 19.8 down to 11.8 with Urtica.“
[Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study., Safarinejad, M.R., Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy, Vol.5(4), 2005, 1-11]

„GC and GC–MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-β-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil.“
[Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L. , Gül, S., Demirci, B., Başer, K.H.C., Akpulat, H.A., Aksu, P., Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, Vol.88(5), 2005, 666-671]

„The leaves and stems stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs and also bear many stinging hairs or trichomes, whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that will inject several chemicals including acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT (serotonin), moroidin, leukotrienes and possibly formic acid. After contacting human skin, the irritant is released and produces pain, wheals or a stinging sensation which may last for even more than 12 h. The burning property of the juice is dissipated by heat, enabling the young shoots of the Nettle, when boiled, to be eaten as a pot-herb. For a long time, in folklore medicine, U. dioica has been used as a diuretic agent and to treat arthritis and rheumatism…
With the current information, it is evident that U. dioica has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiandrogenic, antihyperglycemia, antihyperlipidemia, antiviral and anticancer activities, among others. As the current information shows, it is also possible that Scopoletin, polysaccharides, isolectins and sterols might be useful in the development of new drugs to treat various diseases.“
[Phytochemistry and pharmacologic properties of Urtica dioica L., Asgarpanah, J., Mohajerani, R., J Med Plant Res, Vol.6, 2012, 5714-9]

„The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner following 24-h treatment with the Urtica dioica extract. The reactive oxygen species levels were also significantly increased and mitochondrial depolarization was evident. DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and an increase in the activities of caspases 3 and 9 were observed in cells treated with the UD extract and this confirmed the induction of apoptosis as the major cytotoxic modality for this extract.“
[Urtica dioica Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Prostate Carcinoma LNCaP Cells: Involvement of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Depolarization and Apoptosis., Levy, A., Sivanesan, D., Murugan, R., Jornadal, J., Quinonez, Y., Jaffe, M., Rathinavelu, A., Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol.13(5), 2014, 711-717]

Lindman, C.A.M., Bilder ur Nordens Flora, vol.2: t.364 (1922-1926)

Urtica dioica - Wien, Schlosspark Schönbrunn, Deponie © Rolf Marschner (2021)

urtica_dioica_l.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2021/06/24 20:00 von andreas