Trifolium repens L. - Fabaceae - white clover, dutch clover, ladino clover, Weißklee, Weiß-Klee, Kriechklee
Rhizomatous creeping perennial, up to 45cm high, native to the northern hemisphere, cultivated as fodder crop; leaves 3-foliolate, leaflets obovate or broad elliptic; flowers white or pale pink.
White clover contains small amounts of the isoflavone formononetin and the estrogenic coumarin derivate coumestrol.
[Die bestimmung östrogener isoflavone und cumöstrol in klee (Trifolium pratense L. und Trifolium repens L.)., Sachse, J., Journal of Chromatography A, 96(1), 1974, 123-136]
The three main flavonoid components of T.repens flower extracts were isolated and identified as quercetin-3-O-galactoside, its 6′′-O-acetyl derivative, and myricetin-3-O-galactoside.
[Sequestration and distribution of flavonoids in the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus reared on Trifolium repens., Schittko, U., Burghardt, F., Fiedler, K., Wray, V., Proksch, P., Phytochemistry, 51(5), 1999, 609-614]
The phenolics cis- and trans-p-coumaric acid-4-O-β-glucopyranoside, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin-(4α-8)-epigallocatechin and their corresponding prodelphinidin polymers were isolated from T.repens flowers.
[The phenols and prodelphinidins of white clover flowers., Foo LY, Molan AL, Woodfield DR, McNabb WC., Phytochemistry, Vol.54, 2000, 539–548]
An ethanolic extract of T.repens showed strong scavenging free radical and anti-lipid peroxidation capacities. The strong antioxidant activity may be due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.
[Evaluation of a Trifolium Repens L. extract as a Potential Source of Antioxidants., Liu, S., Li, S., Sun, Z., Tian, J., Austin J Pharmacol Ther, 2(10), 2014, 5]
Masclef,A., Atlas des plantes de France, vol.2 t.79 (1890)
Trifolium repens, © Rolf Marschner (2017), www.botanische-spaziergaenge.at