Symphytum × uplandicum Nyman - syn.Symphytum peregrinum Ledeb. - Boraginaceae
Russian comfrey, blue comfrey, Futter-Beinwell, Comfrey
Symphytum x uplandicum = S. officinale x S. asperum
Perennial herb, 0.80-1.50m high, native to Asia, indtroduced to Europe; stem mostly branched from the ground; corolla purple, much longer than the calyx; grown as fodder crop.
„Roots and leaves contain intermedine, lycopsamine, the 7-acetyl derivatives of these alkaloids, uplandicine, symlandine, symviridine, myoscorpine, symphytine, the major alkaloid echimidine, and the N-oxides of these compounds in different concentrations. A total alkaloid content of ca. 0.2% was found in the dried aerial parts. Russian comfrey should no longer be used for medicinal purposes.“
[Medicinal plants in Europe containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids., Roeder, E., Pharmazie, Vol.50(2), 1995, 83-98]
„Wound healing effects of a topically applied preparation (Traumaplant®) containing a concentrate (10 % active ingredient) from the aerial parts of medicinal comfrey (Symphytum × uplandicum Nyman) were examined in a randomized clinical double-blind study including 278 patients with fresh abrasions… Symphytum herb extract can be attributed distinct wound healing effects, effects that can explicitly be used in paediatry.“
[Der wundheilende Effekt einer Symphytum-Herba-Extrakt-Creme (Symphytum× uplandicum Nyman): Ergebnisse einer randomisierten, kontrollierten Doppelblindstudie. Barna, M., Kucera, A., Hladícova, M., Kucera, M., Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 157(21-22), 2007, 569-574]