Solidago virgaurea L. - Asteraceae - European goldenrod, woundwort, Gewöhnliche Goldrute, Gemeine Goldrute
Perennial herb, up to 1m high, native to Europe, North Africa, West Asia; leaves alternate, lanceolate, serrulate; flower-heads 6-10mm long, ray florets distinct longer as the calyx, yellow, tube florets yellow-orange.
The flowering aboveground parts (Solidaginis virgaureae herba) or extracts are used as diuretic and urinary antiseptic to treat kidney and bladder infections, as well as urinary calculi and kidney gravel.
[Medicinal Plants of the World. Ben-Erik Van Wyk and Michael Wink, Pretoria 2004, 305]
The herb contain the phenolic glycosides leiocarposide and virgaureoside A. Leiocarposide is hydrolyzed in artificial intestinal fluid only very slowly (t1/2 = 41.7 h); less than 10% were found in the urine as metabolites.
[Biotransformation of phenolglycosides leiocarposide and salicin., Fötsch, G., Pfeifer, S., Bartoszek, M., Franke, P., Hiller, K., Die Pharmazie, 44(8), 1989, 555-558]
It was shown that the highest phenolic glycoside (leiocarposide) content was found in 2-year-old leaves (1.05%) after flowering (Sep.) and in the flower buds (1.60%) in June.
[Quantitative determination of leiocarposide in Solidago virgaurea L., Bader, G., Janka, M., Hannig, H.J., Hiller, K., Pharmazie, 45(5), 1990, 380-381]
S.virgaurea extracts contained rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rubinobioside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside.
[High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of flavonol glycosides of Solidago virgaurea., Pietta, P., Gardana, C., Mauri, P., Zecca, L., Journal of Chromatography A, 558(1), 1991, 296-301]
„The flavonoid fractions of Solidago virgaurea L.S. gigantea Ait., S. canadensis var. canadensis and S. canadensis var. „scabra“ flowers were administrated p.o. to rats and showed diuretic activity. Increase in overnight diuresis reached 57-88%. Decrease of overnight excretion of potassium and sodium also occurred after administration of form examined fractions. The flavonoids from S. virgaurea and S. canadensis var. canadensis caused increased excretion of calcium with urine.“
[Effect of flavonoid fractions of Solidago virgaurea L on diuresis and levels of electrolytes., Chodera, A., Dabrowska, K., Sloderbach, A., Skrzypczak, L., Budzianowski, J., Acta poloniae pharmaceutica, 48(5-6), 1991, 35-37]
Aerial parts as well as roots of Solidago virgaurea L. subsp. virgaurea contain acylated bisdesmosidic triterpenoid glycosides of polygalacic acid (2β-, 3β-, 16α-, 23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid).
[The main saponins from the aerial parts and the roots of Solidago virgaurea subsp. virgaurea., Bader, G., Wray, V., Hiller, K., Planta medica, 61(2), 1995, 158-161]
The analysis of 452 individual plants of S.virgaurea showed a high variability of the phytochemical composition (especially subspecies virgaurea) and ranges of 0.4-2.4 % flavonol glycosides, 0.7-4.6 % caffeic acid derivatives and 0.0-1.6 % phenolic glucosides.
[Intraspezifische Variabilität und Einflüsse von Anbaumaßnahmen auf den Inhaltsstoffgehalt und Ertrag von Solidago virgaurea L., Lück, L., Doctoral dissertation, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerische Fakultät, 2001] http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/lueck-lorna-2001-08-03/PDF/Lueck.pdf
The essential oil collected by distillation (0.22%) of the fresh flowering tops of wild-growing (Russian Altai lowland) S.virgaurea had α-pinene (36.5%), myrcene (14.8%), β-caryophyllene (10.5%), germacrene D (8.2%), β-pinene (7.1%) and limonene+β-phellandrene (6.4%) as main components. It showed high activity against Aspergillus niger, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cervisiae, but low activity against Escherichia coli and no effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
[Volatile oil-bearing flora of Siberia VIII: essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of wild Solidago virgaurea L. from the Russian Altai., Tkachev, A.V., Korolyuk, E.A., Letchamo, W., Journal of Essential Oil Research, 18(1), 2006, 46-50]
HPLC analysis revealed the presence of three flavonoid compounds (hyperoside, rutin, and astragalin) and two polyphenolic acids (rosmarinic acid 577mg/100g, chlorogenic acid 267mg/100g) in Solidago virgaurea L. subsp. virgaurea. Rutin was the main flavonoid (87-387mg/100g).
[Chemical characteristics of European goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea L. subsp. virgaurea) from natural sites in Central and Eastern Poland., Roslon, W., Osinska, E., Mazur, K., Geszprych, A., Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 13(1), 2014, 55-65]
Dietrich,A.G., Flora regni borussici, vol.12, t.833 (1844)