Sinomenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehd. & Wils. - Menispermaceae - 风龙 feng long (chin.), Chinese moonseed, Chinesischer Mondsame
Deciduous, dioecious woody vine, native to East Asia (northern India to Japan); leaves long petioled, cordate-ovate to broadly ovate, margin entire; flowers small, yellowish-green, in axillary panicles; fruit globose, red to dark purple or blue-black. „S.acutum contains the alkaloid sinomenine, which is used to treat arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.“
„The root and stem decoctions of Sinomenium acutum Rehd. et Wils. (formerly Sinomenium diversifolius Diels, one type of Fang-chi (Chinese)) have been used as a folk remedy for neuralgia and rheumatoid arthritis in many areas of the Far East. In Japan and China various viny plants have been identified as Fang-chi (Boi in Japanese) since antiquity. This uncertain nomenclature has made it difficult to evaluate the efficacy of the Fang-chi described in the classic literature. Among traditional Fang-chi plants only Sinomeniumacutum has been demonstrated to contain the alkaloid sinomenine, which is now known to be effective in neuralgia and rheumatic diseases. Sinomenine is a unique plant alkaloid, as it potently releases histamine in association with degranulation of tissue mast cells in mammalian tissues. This action occurs preferentially in the skin and joint capsules. The released histamine is responsible for the dominant pharmacological actions of sinomenine, such as vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, acceleration of the thoracic and peripheral lymph flow, contraction of plain muscles, increased peristalsis of the intestines, and stimulation of gastric acid secretion. At toxic doses of sinomenine, convulsive central excitation was observed in most laboratory animals.“
[Pharmacology of sinomenine, an anti-rheumatic alkaloid from Sinomenium acutum. Yamasaki, H., Acta Med Okayama, Vol.30(1), 1976, 1-20] http://ousar.lib.okayama-u.ac.jp/file/31433/20071205225019/fulltext.pdf
„The information for 89 cases included in this review was compiled. The SA contains alkaloids, sterols, phospholipids, and some other components. A great deal of pharmacological and clinic research has been done on sinomenine, a main compound from SA, which mainly focuses on the immune system, cardiovascular system, and nervous system.
Conclusion: Previous studies strongly support its potential as an effective adaptogenic herbal remedy. There is no doubt that SA is being widely used now and will have extraordinary potential for the future.“
[Sinomenium acutum: A review of chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use. Zhao, X. X., Peng, C., Zhang, H., Qin, L. P., Pharmaceutical biology, Vol.50(8), 2012, 1053-1061]