Rhus typhina L. - syn.Rhus hirta (L.) Sudw.; Datisca hirta L. - Anacardiaceae
staghorn sumac, velvet sumac, Virginian sumac, Essigbaum, Hirschkolben-Sumach
Deciduous shrub or tree, up to 10m high, native to eastern North America, cultivated as ornamental and naturalized elsewhere (Europe); leaves imparipinnate, leaflets sessile, serrate; flowers green; fruits very attractive, crimson-hairy, in dense conical clusters.
„The fruit of sumacs can be collected, soaked and washed in cold water, strained, sweetened and made into a pink lemonade. The leaves and berries of staghorn sumac have been mixed with tobacco and other herbs and smoked by Native American tribes.“
„Chinese sumac was found to be rich in protein, fat, fiber and ash. In addition, its oil can be regarded as a potential source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid.“
[Comparative study on the chemical composition of Syrian sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits., Kossah, R., Nsabimana, C., Zhao, J., Chen, H., Tian, F., Zhang, H., Chen, W., Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, Vol.8(10), 2009, 1570-1574]
„Sumac plant (Rhus typhina) is mainly used for forestation and gardening, whereas its fruit can be used to prepare a kind of beverage called “sumac-ade” and to treat gastrointestinal disorders… The antimicrobial activity of R. typhina fruit extract was tested against twelve strains including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeasts. The extract showed a strong antimicrobial activity with a concentration-dependence and a broad antimicrobial spectrum for all tested bacteria species. Bacillus cereus and Helicobacter pylori were found to be the most sensitive Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria respectively, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.10%. However, yeasts exhibited much lower sensitivity, with MICs of 0.60–0.75%. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated, including scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals (0.016 mg/ml as IC50 value) and reducing power (IC50 value of 0.041 mg/ml).“
[Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruit extract., Kossah, R., Zhang, H., Chen, W., Food Control, Vol.22(1), 2011, 128-132]
The burgund colour of the fruits of staghorn sumac is due to 7-O-methyl anthocyanins and their galloylated derivatives and 7-O-methyl-pyranoanothocyanin-vinyl-catechol aglycones, Sumadin A and Sumadin B, and their derivatives.
[Isolation and structural characterization of unusual pyranoanthocyanins and related anthocyanins from Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L.) via UPLC–ESI-MS, 1 H, 13 C, and 2D NMR spectroscopy., Kirby, C.W., Wu, T., Tsao, R., McCallum, J.L., Phytochemistry, Vol.94, 2013, 284-293]
Jaume Saint-Hilaire, J.H., Traité des arbrisseaux et des arbustes cultivés en France, t. 166 (1825)