Piper retrofractum Vahl - syn.Piper officinarum (Miq.) C.DC.; Chavica officinarum Miq.; Piper chaba Hunter - Piperaceae
Javanese long pepper, balinese long pepper, 假荜拔 jia bi ba (chin.), Javanischer Langer Pfeffer
Dioecious climber, native to Southeast Asia (Indonesia to China), cultivated for its fruit (used dried as spice and seasoning); leaves elliptic to ovate-oblong; spikes leaf-opposed, male spikes 5-6.5cm, female ones 3-4cm × 7mm.
Essential oil of the fruits contained caryophyllene oxide (7.4%) and β-caryophyllene 5.2%.
[Fruit Oil Composition of Piper chaba Hunt., P. longum L. and P. nigrum L., Tewtrakul, S., Hase, K., Kadota, S., Namba, T., Komatsu, K., Tanaka, K., Journal of Essential Oil Research, Vol.12(5), 2000, 603-608]
Leaves: „The leaves of Javaneese pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) has been proven efficacious as antimicrobial agent, however, there was no further information about action mechanism of antibacterial of Javaneese pepper leaves essential oil… Steam distillation of essential oil from fresh leaves of Javanese pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) gave 0.03 % yellowish viscous liquid. Germacrene D (24.20 %), tetramethylcyclo[188.8.131.52(4.11)]-undec-8-ene (17.73 %), ar-turmeron (11.55 %) and benzyl benzoate (6.28 %) were identified as major constituents analyzed by GC-MS. Javaneese pepper [leaves] essential oil was active against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus…“
[Chemical Constituents and antibacterial effect of essential oil of Javanese pepper leaves (Piper retrofractum Vahl.)., Jamal, Y., Irawati, P., Fathoni, A., Agusta, A., Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, 23(2 Jun), 2013, 65-72]
The hydrodistilled essential oil contained α-humulene (16.4%), caryophyllene oxide (12.2%), viridiflorol (8.1%), globulol (7.4%), β-selinene (7.1%), spathulenol (6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (5.1%), linalool (4.5%) and 3-pentanol (3.5%) as major components.
[Antifungal activity of essential oil and extracts of Piper chaba Hunter against phytopathogenic fungi., Rahman, A., Al-Reza, S.M., Kang, S.C., Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 88(4), 2011, 573-579]
Analysis of the essential oil of P.retrofractum fruits (1% yield) showed isocaryophyllene (8.8%), β-bisabolene (7.0%) and zingiberene (6.3%) as main components.
[Ismaniar, M. Perbandingan Komponen Kimia Penyusun Minyak Atsiri pada Buah dari Genus Piper (Piper betle L, Piper cubeba L, dan Piper retrofractum Vahl) Menggunakan Analisis GC-MS., Vera Suryaningsih, Thesis, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, May 2014]
In a comparativ study of the fruits of five pepper species species available in the region of Mumbai (India),
Piper nigrum, Piper longum, Piper retrofractum, Piper cubeba and Piper betle were evaluated for physicochemical properties including volatile oil content and piperine content. Volatile oil content was 1.6, 0.2, 0.8, 4.4, 0.2% respectively. Piperine content was 1.7, 0.3, 0.95, 0.15, 0.9%, respectively.
[Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Fruits and Antidepressant Potential of Volatile Oils of Fruits of Local Piper Species., Khan, M., Oriental Journal of Chemistry, Vol.31(1), 2015, 541-545]