Piper longum L. - Piperaceae - Indian long pepper, Langer Pfeffer, Stangenpfeffer

Dioecious climber, several meter long, native to India, Nepal, naturalized and cultivated in Southeast Asia; leaves ovate-oblong to cordate, acute to acuminate, very finely powdery pubescent; spikes leaf-opposed, male ones 4-5cm × 3mm, female spikes 1.5-2.5cm × 2.5-4mm, 2-3cm in fruit.

„Greeks and Romans imported long pepper and valued him as a remedy and spice. Long pepper has been used extensively in Europe until the 17th century, but is then almost completely replaced by P.nigrum … Infructescences (reminiscent of catkins) are harvested in various stages of maturity, dried, and traded as long pepper. It is used mainly as spice, but also as remedy in India. Long pepper is about the same as hot as black pepper and owns a slightly sweet and sour taste.“

„Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC50 value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.“
[A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae., Yang, Y.C., Lee, S.G., Lee, H.K., Kim, M.K., Lee, S.H., Lee, H.S., Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, Vol.50(13), 2002, 3765-3767]

„A simple, rapid and solvent-free method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following microwave distillation and headspace solid-phase microextraction (MD-HS-SPME) was developed for the analysis of the essential oils in two traditional Chinese medicines, Piper nigrum L. and Piper longum … Forty-five compounds were separated from P. longum L. and identified. The main components were β-caryophyllene (33.44%), 3-carene (7.58%), eugenol (7.39%), d-limonene (6.70%), zingiberene (6.68%) and cubenol (3.64%).“
[GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oils of Piper nigrum L. and Piper longum L., Liu, L., Song, G., Hu, Y., Chromatographia, Vol.66(9-10), 2007, 785-790]


„… Piper longum dried fruit's oil was studied in rats using the carrageenan-induced right hind paw edema method. The activity was compared with that of standard drug ibuprofen. The dried fruit's oil inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The results indicated that the dried fruit's oil produced significant (p< 0.001) antiinflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control.“
[Antiinflammatory activity of Piper longum fruit oil., Kumar, A., Panghal, S., Mallapur, S.S., Kumar, M., Ram, V., Singh, B.K., Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Vol.71(4), 2009, 454]

„The % w/w yield of piperine in supercritical fluid extract was 8.76 for P.nigrum and for P.longum 4.96. Whereas in Soxhlet extract % w/w yield for P.nigrum 8.13 and for P.longum % w/w was 4.32. “
[Hamrapurkar, P. D., Jadhav, K., & Zine, S. (2011). Quantitative estimation of piperine in Piper nigrum and Piper longum using high performance thin layer chromatography. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 1(3), 2011, 117-120]

Woodville, W., Hooker, W.J., Spratt, G., Medical Botany, 3th edition, vol.4, t.247 (1832)

piper_longum_l.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2018/06/26 17:13 von andreas