Pinus pinaster Aiton - syn.Pinus maritima Lam. non Mill. - Pinaceae - maritime pine, See-Kiefer, Meer-Kiefer, Bordeaux-Kiefer
Tree of the Mediterranean coasts, up to 30m high; bark brown to orange-red, deeply and irregularly longitudinally furrowed; branches forming a pyramidal crown; needles bright green, usually twisted, 10-20cm long by 2mm wide.
„The Pinus pinaster is divided into two subspecies and five varieties.“
„P. pinaster is a successful invasive species in South Africa. One of the results of its invasion in South Africa is a decrease in the biodiversity of the native environment… In addition to being an efficient disperser, P. pinaster is known to produce oleoresins, such as oily terpenes or fatty acids, which can inhibit other species within the community from growing. These resins are produced as a defense mechanism against insect predators, such as the large pine weevil.“
„The chromatographic analysis of the volatile leaf oil of Pinus pinaster Ait. showed 42% of monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, 3-carene, limonene, cis-ocimene, terpinolene, para-cymene, 35% of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (cubebene, copaene, caryophyllene, humulene, germacrene D, α- and γ-muurolenes, δ- and γ-cadinenes) and 23% of oxygenated compounds including esters (linalyl, bornyl, geranyl, neryl and farnesyl acetates), alcohols (cis-hexenol, linalool, α-fenchol, trans-pinocarveol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, dihydrocarveol, guaiol, junenol and α-cadinol), one aldehyde (hexenal) and one ketone (piperitone). Three non terpenoid phenylethyl esters were also identified: phenylethyl isovalerate, methyl-2-butyrate and 3,3-dimethylacrylate. Some alcohols and mainly α-terpineol and linalool seemed to be formed during the steam distillation process, they were absent when the leaf oil was obtained by maceration of small portions of leaves in the usual solvents of terpenes.“
[Identification des constituants de l'essence des aiguilles de Pinus pinaster. Pauly, G., Gleizes, M., & Bernard-Dagan, C., Phytochemistry, Vol.12(6), 1973, 1395-1398]
Main components of French turpentine oil of the Bordeaux area obtained by distillation were α-pinene (71%) and beta-pinene (26%).
[Leseche, B., J. Levisalles, and H. Rudler. „Constituents of French Turpentine of Oil from Pinus pinaster (Bordeaux).“ Planta medica 46.12 (1982): 252-253] https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/pdf/10.1055/s-2007-971228.pdf
The essential leaf oil of P.pinaster (trade sample) was characterized by a high content of α-pinene (44.1%) and β-pinene (29.5%), besides myrcene (4.6%), 3-carene (3.3%) and limonene (3.2%).
[Biology and chemistry of conifer oils., Kubeczka, K.H., Schultze, W., Flavour and fragrance journal, 2(4), 1987, 137-148]
Main components of the essential oil from the needles were α-pinene (28.9%), myrcene (21.7%), β-pinene (4.5%), limonene (3.7%), β-caryophyllene (13.2%), and germacrene D (4.3%). Interesting minor components were 3-hexenol (0.6%), linalool (0.1%), α-terpineol (1.0%), longifolene (1.1%), and phenylethyl 3-methylbutyrate (2.2%). Main components of the essential oil from the branches were α-pinene (40.4%), myrcene (23.1%), β-pinene (12.1%), limonene (8.6%), and longifolene (7.7%). Main components of the essential oil from the female cones were α-pinene (24.7%), myrcene (29.2%), β-pinene (4.2%), α-terpineol (2.9%), α-longipinene (2.3%), and longifolene (20.8%).
[Macchioni, Fabio, et al. „Chemical composition of essential oils from needles, branches and cones of Pinus pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and P. nigra from central ltaly.“ Flavour and Fragrance Journal 18.2 (2003): 139-143]
The highly attractive scent of P.pinaster resin exposed to the sunshine „… is certainly one of the most impressive olfactory experiences available in the coastal regions of mediterraneaen countries… the secret of this unique environmental scent are (ω-1)-macrolides such as tetradecan-13-olide and hexadecane-15-olide, accompanied by ω-macrolides such as pentadecan-15-olide and hexadecan-16-olide, together with the compounds responsible for the woody and resinous notes.“
[Meaningful Scents around the World, Roman Kaiser, Zürich 2006, 146-147]
„The yield of turpentine oil in P. pinaster oleoresin was 23.6% (v/m). Gas chromatographic analysis (GC and GC/MS) showed a total of 27 mono- and sesquiterpenes, representing 100.0% of the oil. The principal compound was the bicyclic monoterpene, α-pinene (90.82%). Other compounds were present in less than 1%, except limonene with 1.03% and trans-pinocarvyl acetate with 1.18% …“
[Stojkovic, D., et al. „Susceptibility of three clinical isolates of Actinomodura madurae to α-pinene, the bioactive agent of Pinus pinaster turpentine oil.“ Arch Biol Sci 60 (2008): 697-701] http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.615.6586&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Lambert, A.B., Description of the genus Pinus and some other remarkable plants, 2nd ed., vol.1, t.4 (1890) [Ferdinand Bauer]