Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton - syn.Perilla ocymoides L. - Lamiaceae
紫苏 zi su (chin.), wild sesame, shiso, kkaennip, egoma, beefsteak plant, yegoma oil plant, purple mint, Perilla, Shiso, Schwarznessel, Sesamblatt
Annual aromatic herb, 0.3-2 m tall, cultivated in Asia; leaves broadly ovate to circular, serrate, green, purplish, or purple-black; flowers white.
„It is the species identification encompassing two distinct varieties of traditional crop in East Asia:
P. frutescens var. crispa the aromatic leafy herb, … P. frutescens var. frutescens, the oilseed crop, source of perilla oil.“
Perilla Oil extracted from P. frutescens seeds is added to meal for seasoning.
„Korean cuisine uses green leaves of the oilseed variety, which have a flavor different from shiso, and also uses the perilla seeds, known as „wild sesame“, a source of perilla oil rich in ALA omega-3 fatty acids.“
„…essential oil … of the leaf … It is known that agreeable aromatic smell largely depends on the presence of a cyclic monoterpenoid, perillaaldehyde (4-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde, spicy cumin-like), which occupies a large part of the essential oil. However, there are chemical varieties of this species which do not have perillaaldehyde but either a monoterpenoid with a disagreeable smell or phenylpropanoid as the main oil component …“
[Perilla: The Genus Perilla. He-ci Yu, Kenichi Kosuna, Megumi Haga, CRC Press, 1997]
„…Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) leaf were extracted … Thirty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS. 1-(3-Furyl)-4-methyl-1-pentanone (perilla ketone) was found to be the most abundant volatile compound, followed in order by (Z)-3-hexenol and 1-octen-3-ol. Perilla ketone comprised 81% (93 ppm), 84% (120 ppm), and 95% (490 ppm) of the volatile compounds obtained from SAFE, LLCE, and HD, respectively. Thirteen aroma-active compounds were detected by GC-O. Perilla ketone, 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-1-one (egoma ketone), and 1-(3-furyl)-4-methyl-2-penten-1-one (isoegoma ketone) were considered to be the characteristic aroma-active compounds of Korean perilla leaf. Perilla ketone, (Z)-3-hexenal (green), egoma ketone, and isoegoma ketone were the most intense aroma-active compounds in Korean perilla leaf. Other relatively intense odorants included (Z)-3-hexenol (green), (E)-2-hexenal (green), benzaldehyde (almond), 1-octen-3-one (metallic), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom), phenylacetaldehyde (honeysuckle), linalool (lemon), and β-caryophyllene (woody).“
[Characteristic Aroma-Active Compounds of Korean Perilla (Perilla frutescens Britton) Leaf. Won Ho Seo and Hyung Hee Baek, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57 (24), pp 11537–11542]
„The name beefsteak plant is probably derived from the bloody purple-red color of the leaves of many forms… We cannot recommend most forms of beefsteak plant for culinary applications. Perilla frutescens has no GRAS status and many forms are rich in perilla ketone, a chemical shown to be apotent lung toxin and documented to produce acute pulmory edema in sheep, atypical interstitial pneumonia and acute pulmonrary emphysema and edema in cattle, and restricitve lung disease in horses.“
[The encyclopedia of herbs: a comprehensive reference to herbs of flavor and fragrance., DeBaggio, T., Tucker, A.O., Timber Press, 2009, 389]
[Kerr, L. A. (1983). Perilla frutescens toxicity in cattle (Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University).] https://shareok.org/bitstream/handle/11244/16337/Thesis-1983-K403p.pdf
Essential oil (leaves and stems) of Perilla frutescens var. japonia (Egoma) inhibits the growth of other plants like lettuce and crabgrass. The inhibitor was identified as perilla ketone.
Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, vol.50 t.2395 (1823)
© Rolf Marschner (2010), http://botanische-spaziergaenge.at/viewtopic.php?f=95&t=2157