Monarda fistulosa L. - Lamiaceae - wild bergamot bee balm, wild bergamot, purple beebalm,
Wilde Bergamotte , Wilde Monarde, Wilde Indianernessel
Perennial herb, up to 1m tall, native to Northern America; leaves lanceolate, toothed; terminal compact flower clusters about 4cm long, with 20-50 reddish- to violet-white flowers.
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa - primarily eastern and central North America
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia (= Monarda menthifolia) - primarily western North America
„Wild bergamot was considered a medicinal plant by many Native Americans including the Menominee, the Ojibwe, and the Winnebago (Ho-Chunk). It was used most commonly to treat colds, and was frequently made into a tea. Today, many families still use wild bergamot during the cold and flu season. The tea may be sweetened with honey, as it tends to be quite strong.“
„The composition of the essential oil of wild bergamot bee balm introduced into the Krasnodarsk Krai has been analyzed by chromatomass spectrometry. The essential oil contains 34 components of which the main ones are α-pinene (3.5%), β-pinene (2.9%), α-terpinene (1.7%), p-cymene (32.5%), an aliphatic aldehyde (6.3%), sabinene hydrate (1.9%), β-caryophyllene (1.1%), the methyl ether of carvacrol (5.5%), citronellyl acetate (1.6%), thymol (12.6%), and carvacrol (24.0%).“
[An investigation of the component composition of the essential oil of Monarda fistulosa., Zamureenko, V. A., Klyuev, N.A., Bocharov, B.V., Kabanov, V.S., Zakharov, A.M., Chemistry of Natural Compounds, Vol.25(5), 1989, 549-551]
„Monarda fistulosa L., native to the Canadian prairies, is drought tolerant, winter hardy, and may yield an essential oil high in geraniol content (Marshall and Scora 1972; Mazza et al. 1987). When this native species is crossed with M. didyma, vigorous hybrids, yielding essential oils rich in geraniol, linalool, thymol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, and other terpenes can be produced.“
[Monarda: a source of geraniol, linalool, thymol and carvacrol-rich essential oils., Mazza, G., Kiehn, F.A., Marshall, H.H., New crop. Wiley, New York, 1993, 628-631] https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1993/V2-628.html
„… three chemotypes had been identified in Monarda fistulosa, containing either geraniol, carvacrol, or thymol, as their main monoterpene (Marshall and Scora 1972, Weaver et al. 1995, Johnson et al. 1998). The smell of geraniol is sweet or lemony - it is a major component of lemon oil, whereas carvacrol and thymol remind one of thyme or oregano, both of which have these chemotypes. While the existence of these three chemotypes in M. fistulosa has been known since the early 1970s, only one study presented detailed information on the distribution of chemotypes in the species (Marshall and Scora 1972).“
[Keefover-Ring, K. Monarda fistulosa: Making Good Scents in Colorado.] http://conps.org/monarda-fistulosa-making-good-scents-in-colorado/
Hydrodistillation of thymoquinone from wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) with supercritical CO2 leads to substantial loss of this compound. Extraction with hexane ensured maximum thymoquinone yields (2.1 mg/g, extract thymoquinone concentration 3.8%), while supercritical CO2 extraction was 1.7mg/g with high thymoquinone concentration in the extract (10.2% w/w).
[Sovova, Helena, Marie Sajfrtova, and Martin Topiar. „Supercritical CO2 extraction of volatile thymoquinone from Monarda didyma and M. fistulosa herbs.“ The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 105 (2015): 29-34]
Addisonia, vol.9 t.308 (1924) [M.E.Eaton]