Iberis amara L. - syn. Iberis coronaria D. Don - Brassicaceae - bitter candytuft, rocket candytuft, Bittere Schleifenblume, Bitterer Bauernsenf
Annual herb, up to 40cm high, native to Western Europe and the Mediterranean, naturalized in America and New Zealand; leaves spatulate or oblanceolate to oblong, dentate; flowers in racemes, small, irregular, white or pink to purple. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200009565
Glucoiberin (3-methylsulfinylpropyl glucosinolate) has been found in the roots, herb and seeds of I.amara. The bitter agent ibamarin was isolated from the seeds.
[Das Senfölglukosid „Glukoiberin” ︁ und der Bitterstoff „Ibamarin” ︁ von Iberis amara L.(Schleifenblume). IX. Mitteilung über Senfölglukoside., Schultz, O.E., Gmelin, R., Archiv der Pharmazie, 287(7), 1954, 404-411]
The cytotoxic and bitter tasting triterpenes cucurbitacin E and cucurbitacin I have been isolated from green parts of Iberis amara.
[Cucurbitacin E and I in Iberis amara: Feeding inhibitors for Phyllotreta nemorum., Nielsen, J.K., Larsen, L. M., Sørensen H., Phytochemistry, 16(10), 1977, 1519-1522]
3-Methylthiopropylamine and (R)-3-methylsulphinylpropylamine have been isolated from Iberis amara.
[3-Methylthiopropylamine and (R)-3-methylsulphinylpropylamine in Iberis amara., Dalgaard, L., Nawaz, R., Sørensen, H., Phytochemistry, 16(7), 1977, 931-932]
„In pharmacological studies both in vitro (e.g., in guinea pig ileum) and in vivo (e.g., in Wistar rats) the fresh plant extract of Iberis amara (IF) exhibited a tonicising effect on the smooth muscles of the stomach and small intestine. In the rat IF produced a dose-dependent antiulcerogenic effect (indomethacin-induced ulcer) comparable to that of cimetidine (reference substance). The stomach acid release and the leucotriene-concentration, increased by indomethacin, were reduced by IF, whereas the prostaglandin E2 content, reduced by indomethacin, was increased. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome as a subtypological symptom associated with diarrhea and in patients with alternating diarrhea and obstipation, clear differences were found between drug and placebo in a multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomized parallel group comparison.“
[Iberis amara L.(bitter candytuft)–profile of a medicinal plant., Reichling, J., Saller, R., Forschende Komplementarmedizin und klassische Naturheilkunde = Research in complementary and natural classical medicine, 9, 2002, 21-33]
Iberis amara L., Dietrich, A.G., Flora regni borussici, vol.12, t.855 (1844)