Gardenia jasminoides J.Ellis - Rubiaceae - 栀子 zhi zi (chin.), common gardenia, cape jasmine, Gardenie, Knopflochblume
Evergreen shrub, up to 3m tall, native to China, Vietnam, Taiwan and Japan; flowers white to pale yellow.
var. fortuneana: corolla doubled; flowers sterile, plants not setting fruit; cultivated plants.
var. jasminoides: corolla simple; flowers fertile, plants setting fruit; wild and occasionally cultivated plants.
„With its shiny green leaves and heavily fragrant white summer flowers, it is widely used in gardens in warm temperate and subtropical climates, and as a houseplant in temperate regions.“ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardenia_jasminoides
„The gardenia absolute was separated into basic, phenolic, acidic, lactonic and neutral fractions and analysed by using GC, combined GC-MS, IR and NMR. A total of 130 components was identified… interesting constituents contributing to the characteristic floral sweet-green odor of this flower were lilac aldehydes, lilac alcohols, cis-3-hexenol and its esters, esters of cis-3-hexenoic acid, esters of tiglic acid and jasmine lactone.
[Chemical composition of the absolute from gardenia flower., Hattori, R., Muraki, S., Yoshida, T., Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, Vol.42(7), 1978, 1351-1356]
Of the more than 200 compounds found in the absolute, more than 100 could be identified by GC/MS. Olfactorially valuable compounds found with a concentration higher than 1% were: linalool (2.1%), benzyl phenylacetate (1.7%), methyl phenylacetate (1.4%), phenylacetic acid (1.3%), 1-phenylethyl acetate (1.2%), myristic acid (1.2%), benzyl benzoate (1.1%), geranyl acetone (1.1%), (Z)-3-hexenoic acid (1.1%), 2-methyl butyric acid (1.1%), benzyl acetate (1.1%), valeric acid (1.0%), p-cresyl acetate (1.0%), ethyl phenylacetate (1.0%), 2-phenyl ethylacetate (1.0%), methyl anthranilate (1.0%), (Z)-4-heptenol (1.0%) and valeraldehyde (1.0%).
[Volatiles of the Absolute of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), Gerhard Buchbauer , Leopold Jirovetz , Alexej Nikiforov , Vijay K. Kaul and Norbert Winker, Journal of Essential Oil Research, Vol.8(3), 1996, 241- 245]
Regarding enantiomeric ratios of volatiles from Gardenia jasminoides flowers, their headspace contained (R)-(-)-linalool (16,1%; 97.9%ee), (S)-(-)-γ-hexalactone (0.3%; 96.3%ee), (E)-(+)-nerolidol (0.1%; 92.9%ee), (R)-(+)-γ-decalactone (0.1%; 95.0%ee), and (S)-(+)-δ-jasmine lactone (5.4%; 99.0%ee).
[Analysis of enantiomeric ratios of aroma components in several ﬂowers using a Chiramix column., Tamogami, S., Awano, K.I., Amaike, M., Takagi, Y., Kitahara, T., Flavour and fragrance journal, 19(1), 1-5, 2004]
Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of flowers from Niger delta contained mainly α-farnesene (28%), linalool (22%), (E)-β-ocimene (10%), α-terpineol (9%), guaiol (5%), (Z)-3-hexenyl tiglat (5%), bulnesol (5%), tetracosane (5%), (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate (4%) and methyl tiglat (2%).
[Composition of Essential Oil of Nigerian (Niger Delta) Grown Gardenia Jasminoide Flower. Gloria Ukalina Obuzor, Matthew Ifechukwude Nwaokolo, International Archive of Applied Sciences and Technology, Vol 1  December 2010: 32 - 36] http://soeagra.com/iaast/vol2/5.pdf
An absolute from enfleurage of Gardenia jasminoides flowers (pale liquid with fresh gardenia odor) contained (Z)-β-ocimene, indole, (Z)-3-hexenyl tiglate, (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, and (E)-9-octadecene.
[Volatile profile and sensory property of Gardenia jasminoides aroma extracts., Kanlayavattanakul, M., Lourith, N., Journal of cosmetic science, 66(6), 2014, 371-377]
var.fortuneana as Gardenia radicans Thunb., Botanical Register, vol.1 t.73 (1815) [S.Edwards]