Echinopsis pachanoi (Britton & Rose) H. Friedrich & G. D. Rowley - syn.Trichocereus pachanoi Britt. et Rose - Cactaceae
achuma, andachuma (span.), San Pedro cactus, San Pedro Kaktus
Columnar cactus native to the Andes of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.
„The name is attributed[by whom?] to the belief that just as St Peter holds the keys to heaven, the effects of the cactus allow users „to reach heaven while still on earth.“
„The San Pedro and its additives cause nausea and heavy vomiting, which are believed important in purging the sick person of impurities.“
[Trichocereus pachanoi—a mescaline cactus used in folk healing in Peru., Dobkin, M., Economic Botany, Vol.22(2), 1968, 191-194]
Besides the main alkaloid, mescaline, traces of other substituted phenylethylamines were found with GS/MS, like tyramine, hordenine, 3-methoxytyramine, 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, and anhalonidine.
[Identification of alkaloid intermediates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. I. Potential mescaline precursors in Trichocereus species., Agurell, S., Lloydia, Vol.32(1), 1969, 40]
„Columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis, some of which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes by South American shamans in traditional medicine, were selected for analysis because they were vegetative clones of plants of documented geographic origin and/or because they were known to be used by practitioners of shamanism. Mescaline content of the cortical stem chlorenchyma of each cactus was determined by Soxhlet extraction with methanol, followed by acid–base extraction with water and dichloromethane, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)… The range of mescaline concentrations across the 14 taxa/cultivars spanned two orders of magnitude, from 0.053% to 4.7% by dry weight.“
[New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp.(Cactaceae)(“San Pedro”) and their relevance to shamanic practice., Ogunbodede, O., McCombs, D., Trout, K., Daley, P., Terry, M., Journal of ethnopharmacology, Vol.131(2), 2010, 356-362]