Dryobalanops aromatica C. F. Gaertn. - Dryobalanops sumatrensis (J. F. Gmel.) Kosterm.; Laurus sumatrensis J. F. Gmel. - Dipterocarpaceae
Borneo camphor, Malay camphor, Sumatra camphor
Large tropical rainforest tree, native to Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra; recognised for its valuable timber, ‘kapur’; classified as critically endangered species in 2007.
„Emergent trees up to 62 m tall and 197 cm dbh. Stem with resin. Stipules up to ca. 7 mm long. Leaves alternate, simple, penni-veined, secondary venation very close together. Flowers ca. 5 mm in diameter, white, placed in short panicles. Fruits ca. 35 mm long, yellow-red-purplish, with five wings originating from the calyx base up to ca. 50 mm long, wind dispersed.“
Main components of the essential oil, collected by steam distillation of the exudates from D.aromatica, were β-caryophyllene (21-37%), α-caryophyllene (8-16%), α-pinene (10-36%), terpinen-4-ol (5-10%) and α-terpineol (3-7%). Borneol was detected in the essential oil of D. aromatica at 0.74%. „This finding was different from other studies. Huang and Lu reviewed that the exudates or essential oil of D. aromatica comprised of borneol, α-caryophyllene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, asiatic acid, dryobalanone, erythrodiol and hydroxy-dammarenone II.“
[Le, Tian-Xin, et al. „The presence of borneol and other chemical composition in the essential oil extracted from the exudates of D. aromatica, Malaysia.“] http://tjpr.org/jmanager/manuscript/xfiles/manuscript_with_affliation.doc