Dracocephalum moldavica L. - syn.Moldavica suaveolens Gilib.; Moldavica punctata Moench - Lamiaceae
Moldavian dragonhead, Moldawischer Drachenkopf, Türkischer Drachenkopf, Türkische Melisse, Moldawische Melisse

Annual herb, native from East Europe (Moldawia) to Asia (China). The protected varieties „Arat“ and „Aratora“, which were cultivated in the former GDR, are commercially available since 1990.

„The volatile oil of dragonhead consists mainly of oxygenated, acyclic monoterpenes; geranyl acetate, geranial, neral, geraniol and neryl acetate together account for about 90% of the oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are present only in trace amounts.“
[Capillary gas chromatographic‐mass spectrometric determination of the flavour composition of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Holm, Y., Hiltunen, R., & Nykanen, I., Flavour and fragrance Journal, Vol.3(3), 1988, 109-112]

geranyl acetate
geranyl acetate
citral (left: geranial, right: neral)

„The moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L., Lamiaceae) is an annual plant native in Central Asia and naturalized in Eastern and Central Europe where it is used in folk medicine as antiseptic and stimulating remedy. We carried out qualitative and quantitative phytochemical investigations on moldavian dragonhead herb and on its extracts (tincture and infusion). Plant samples were gathered in different stages of the ontogenesis from cultures in Hungary and Romania (Transylvania). In herb gathered during the reproductive stage of the ontogenesis we measured 0.83% (v/m) of essential oil, in which we identified by GC analysis five main components: geranyl acetate: 33.1%; geranial: 28.2%; neral: 19.8 %; geraniol: 8.2% and neryl acetate: 2.4%. In the essential oil distilled from tincture the geranyl acetate (58. 2%) was the main component while in the volatile oil distilled from infusion, the major compound was geraniol (60.1%). A methanolic extract of the herb was investigated by HPLC. Following on-line analysis of spectra, five components were classified as flavonoids; rosmarinic acid was identified by addition of authentic standard. The amount of two phenol carboxylic acids (caffeic and rosmarinic acid) was measured by TLC-densitometry. High values of phenolic compounds were measured in samples gathered during the vegetative stage of the ontogenesis, such as: rosmarinic acid: 2.84 g%; caffeic acid: 50.3 mg%; total flavonoids: 0,58 g%; tannins: 12.9 g%.“
[Data to the phytochemical evaluation of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L., Lamiaceae). Kakasy, A. Z., Lemberkovics, E., Kursinszki, L., Janicsak, G., & Szoeke, E., Herba polonica, Vol.48(3), 2002, 112-119]

Main components of the hydrodistilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Dracocephalum moldavica L. from Egypt were geranyl acetate (27.0-28.8%), geranial (19.3-20.4%), neral (17.8-18.3%) and geraniol (12.6-16.6%).
[Said-Al Ahl, Hussein AH, et al. „Changes in content and chemical composition of Dracocephalum moldavica L. essential oil at different harvest dates.“ Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 3.2 (2015): 61-64]

Sturm, J., Krause, E.H.L., Lutz, K.G., Flora von Deutschland in Abbildungen nach der Natur, Zweite Auflage, vol.11 t.28 (1903)

Moldawian dragonhead flowers, CC BY-SA 3.0, Author: Andreas Kraska

Dracocephalum moldavica, Botanischer Garten der Universität Wien
© Rolf Marschner (2018),

dracocephalum_moldavica_l.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2019/08/19 09:52 von andreas