Dorema ammoniacum D. Don - Apiaceae - syn. Peucedanum ammoniacum Nees; ammoniac plant, Ammoniakpflanze

Native plant of Afghanistan, Iran, West Pakistan.

From insect damaged stems a resin called 'Ammoniacum' is exuded. The dried resinous exudat is also known as Olegum resin or Gummiresina Ammoniacum. „The best quality product is collected as small, pale yellow solid crystals or tears (Ammoniacum lacrimis); blocks or lumps (up to 600g, Ammoniacum in massis) are inferior… Therapeutic category: Ecpectorant, antispasmodic, counter-irritant… The gum contains 60-70% resin, about 12% gum, 0.1-0.3% volatile oil with linaloolacetate, citronellylacetate, sesquiterpenes…“
[Medicinal Plants of the World. Ben-Erik Van Wyk and Michael Wink, Pretoria 2004, 127]

„Dorema ammoniacum D.Don (Apiaceae) yields a resin which is collected from the aerial parts, mainly the inflorescences, as evidenced in the region of Yazd. It is produced as a defence against negative impacts of an insect (Cemambicydae) living in symbiosis with the plant. The insect perforates the sprouts, which causes the flow of a resin oxidizing and solidifying in sunlight. The resin is mainly collected for the Indian market. In our studies on the resin of Dorema ammoniacum Karst., we found two chemotypes so diffently composed that the two types might call for a botanical differentiation. Dorema ammoniacum resins yield only small quantities of essential oil… Major compounds in the resin of Dorema ammoniacum from central Iran with more than 7 percent each are ß-bisabolene and dihydro-α-agarofuran…“
[Ferula gummosa: Phytochemical variability in Iran. Michael Thomsen, Mathias Schmidt , Georges Betti, Hervé Casabianca, Reza Omidbai. Poster from the International Congress on Natural Products Research, Phoenix (USA), July 31 - August 4, 2004] posterferulagumosa.pdf

„D.ammoniacum, a vulnerable species, grows to a height of about 1-2 m and in spring and early summer contains a milky juice. It is one of the most important endemic medicinal plants in many arid and semi-arid regions of Iran such as Yazd, Isfahan, Semnan and Kerman provinces, which are known by the local persian names of Kandal, Vasha and Koma-kandal. D. ammoniacum produces a medicinal gum resin, commonly known as ammoniacum gum, wich is found in cavities in stems, roots, and petioles…
The Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers, stem and roots of Dorema ammoniacum D.Don. were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty components comprising 95.4 % of the flower oil , twentyone components comprising 93.37 % of the stem oil and twelve components comprising 90.3 % of the root oil were identified. The major components in the flower oil were δ-cadinene (11.58%) and α-himachalene (7.71%). The stem oil contained δ-cadinene (16.24 %), liguloxide (8.69 %) and δ-amorphene (8.43%) as the major components, while the root oil had 3-n-butyl phthalide (62.49%), benzyl butanoate (6.57%) and liguloxide (5.15 %) as the major components.The oils of flower,stem and root were richer in sesquiterpenes than monoterpenes.“
[Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Flowers, Stems and Roots of Dorema ammoniacum D.Don from Iran. Masoud Sadeghei Takalloa, Sami Sajjadifara, and Maziar Mansouji Avval. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol.4 (4), 2013, 640-644]

„Dorema ammoniacum: Taken internally, it acts by facilitating expectoration and is of value in chronic bronchitis, especially in the aged when the secretion is tough and viscid. The resin has a mild diuretic action. It is antispasmodic and stimulant and is given sometimes as a diaphoretic and emmenagogue.“
[A contribution to some ethnobotanical aspects of Birjand flora (Iran). Mood, Sholeh Ghollassi. Pak. J. Bot Vol.40 (4), 2008, 1783-1791]

„The extract of ammoniacum gum exhibited a of broad spectrum antimicrobial activity by inhibiting all the seven Gram-positive bacterium, one Gramnegative bacterium, one yeast and one fungus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 40µg/ml.“
[Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of ammoniacum gum from Dorema ammoniacum. Rajani, M., et al. Pharmaceutical biology, Vol.40 (7), 2002, 534-541]

„… Ripe fruits of D. ammoniacum collected just in the deciduous time were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield the essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-nine compounds were identified and quantified, representing 95.1 % of the total oil. (Z)-Ocimenone (22.3 %) and (E)-ocimenone (18.1 %) were the main components of the oil. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger). The results of the antimicrobial assay of the oil by the disc diffusion method and the MIC values indicated that the oil exhibited moderate to high antimicrobial activity, especially against B. subtilis and S. epidermidis…“
[Composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. fruit from Iran. Yousefzadi Morteza, Mirjalili Hossein Mohammad, Alnajar Naba, Zeinali Amineh, Parsa Mitra, Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, Vol.76 (6), 2011, 857-863]

Kohl, F.G., Die officinellen Pflanzen der Pharmacopoea Germanica, t.87 (1891-1895)

dorema_ammoniacum_d.don.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2015/10/07 17:02 von andreas