Datura stramonium L. - Solanaceae - common thorn apple, jimsonweed, Gemeiner Stechapfel, Weißer Stechapfel
Annual herb, up to 150cm high, native to Mexico, naturalized and cultivated elsewhere; leaves broadly ovate, glabrescent, irregularly dentate-lobed; flower funnelform, corolla white or pale purple, greenish at base; fruit capsules erect, globose or ovoid, 3-4.5 × 2-4cm, with copious prickles. „Cultivated in gardens as a medicinal and decorative plant. The whole plant is toxic and is used medicinally as anaesthetic and for sedating and relieving muscular spasm. Seed oil can be used for soap making.“
The alkaloid content of D.stramonium seeds was 2.71 mg atropine and 0.66 mg scopolamine/g.
[Toxicological evaluation of jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seed. Dugan, G. M., Gumbmann, M. R., Friedman, M., Food and chemical toxicology, Vol.27(8), 1989, 501-510]
„Jimson weed is found in southern Canada and the United States and can cause acute anticholinergic poisoning and death in humans and animals. The treatment of choice for anticholinergic poisoning is mainly supportive care and gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. Jimson weed intoxication should be considered in cases of patients presenting with unexplained peripheral and central anticholinergic symptoms including delirium, agitation and seizures, especially among younger patients and partygoers. It is important that health care professionals recognize that Jimson weed is a toxic, indigenous, „wild“ growing plant, subject to misuse and potentially serious intoxication requiring hospitalization.“
[Teenagers with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) poisoning. Spina, S. P., Taddei, A., Cjem, Vol.9(6), 2007, 467] http://cjem-online.ca/v9/n6/p467
Sixty seven tropane alkaloids were identified in the organs of Datura stramonium L. by GC/MS. Hyoscyamine/Atropine (50-65%, percentage of total ion current) and scopolamine (20-36%) are by far the major tropane alkaloids in the stems, leaves, flowers and seeds. The major root alkaloids were hyoscyamine/atropine (29.5%) and 3,6-ditigloyloxy-7-hydroxytropane (23.4%).
[Nine new tropane alkaloids from Datura stramonium L. identified by GC/MS. El Bazaoui, A., Bellimam, M. A., Soulaymani, A., Fitoterapia, Vol.82(2), 2011, 193-197]
Kohl,F.G., Die officinellen Pflanzen der Pharmacopoea Germanica, t.128 (1891-1895)
Datura stramonium, CC BY-SA 3.0, Author: Andreas Kraska