Daemonorops draco (Willd.) Blume - Arecaceae
dragon's-blood (palm), Drachenblutpalme
Palm, native from India to Indonesia.
The red colored oleoresin of D.draco is called dragon's blood (like some other resins also).
„In bioassays, Dragon’s Blood incense exhibited a low, but measurable cytotoxicity in in vitro cell lines. Dragon’s Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon’s Blood had no adverse effect on mouse motor performance based on the inclined screen and rotorod tests.“
[Dragon’s Blood incense: misbranded as a drug of abuse?. Ford, S. L., et al., Forensic science international, Vol.115(1), 2001, 1-8]
„Dragon’s blood resin is generically a complex mixture of flavanoids, exemplified by dracorubin and dracoic acid, their derivative chalcones and deep red aurones from which the formation of benzoic acid produced as a result of acid or alkaline hydrolysis is realised. It has long been believed that the antiseptic properties of benzoic acid have contributed to the therapeutic uses of dragon’s blood in antiquity; however, the characteristic Raman bands of benzoic acid, which include the strongest features at 794 and 1001 cm−1 do not appear in any of the resin spectra reported here. Hence, we can conclude that the amount of benzoic acid is either not detectable in the naturally harvested resins or that the benzoic acid arises from a post-harvesting treatment process which could cause the chemical scission of the flavanoids…“
[Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon’s blood and related substances. Edward, Howell GM, Luiz Fernando C. de Oliveira, and Anita Quye., Spectrochimica Acta Part A 57, 2001, 2831-2842] http://www2.hawaii.edu/~khayes/Journal_Club/fall2007/Dracaena%20antiquity.pdf
„Dragon’s blood resin is also obtained as deep red teardrop shaped lumps, separated physically from the immature fruit of the South-East Asian rattan- or cane-palm, Daemonorops of the Indonesian islands. The botanical source was previously identified as Calamus draco Willd. (Daemonorops draco Willd.
Blume) by Barry et al. (1926), who also described the resinous layer as being isolated by placing the fruits in sacks and pounding them and the pulp being treated with boiling water. Subsequently the resin was kneaded into balls or long sticks. Various grades have been identified by Howes (1949). Other species as source of
resin are D. didymophylla Becc., D. micracantha (Griff.) Becc., D. motleyi Becc., D. rubra (Reinw. ex Blume) Blume and D.propinqua Becc. …
Rao et al. (1982) reported that the antimicrobial activity of the resin from Daemonorops draco was due to the presence of compounds Dracorhodin and Dracorubin. These compounds were found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 13709), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), Mycobacterium smegmafis (ATCC 607) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231).“
[Dragon's blood: Botany, chemistry and therapeutic uses. Gupta, Deepika, Bruce Bleakley, and Rajinder K. Gupta., Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol.115(3), 2008, 361-380]
„Dracorhodin is a major constituent found in “Dragon's blood” resin of Daemonorops draco Willd. Blume. This natural flavylium compound is a potent pharmaceutical substance due to its biological and pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor and cytotoxic activity.“
[Single‐step purification of dracorhodin from dragon's blood resin of Daemonorops draco using high‐speed counter‐current chromatography combined with pH modulation., Shi, Jianmei, et al., Journal of separation science, Vol.32(23‐24), 2009, 4040-4047]