Cyperus scariosus R. Br. - syn. Cyperus corymbosus var. scariosus (R. Br.) Kuk. - Cyperaceae
cypriol, nut-grass, nagarmotha, Nussgras, Nagarmotha
Rhizomatous and tuberous perennial, grass-like, up to 1.20m high, native to tropical Asia and the coast of northwestern Australia.
The amber root oil (cypriol oil, 0.5-1%, viscous liquid or solid) is used in perfumery with the odor desription 'woody earthy spicy'.
Major constituents of the essential oil (yield 0.45%), obtained by steam distillation of tubers, were isopatchoul-4(5)en-3-one (16.5%), cyperene (15.7%), patchoulenone (7.6%), rotundone (5.1%), rotundene (4.7%) and an unidentified sesquiterpenoid (7.2%).
[Garg, N., Misra, L. N., Siddiqui, M. S., Agarwal, S. K., Bhattacharyya, S. C., Sen, N., & Sethi, K. L. (1990). Volatile constituents of the essential oil of Cyperus scariosus tubers. In Proceedings of the 11th international congress of essential oils, fragrances and flavours. New Delhi, India, 12-16 November, 1989 Vol. 4 Chemistry-analysis and structure. (pp. 161-165). Aspect Publishing.]
Main components of the oil were β-caryophyllene (1.6-24.4%), α-selinene (2.2-5.1%) trans-pinocarveol (4.0-10.5%), and myrtenol (0-7.9%).
[Srivastava, R. K., et al. „Chemical constituents and biological activities of promising aromatic plant nagarmotha (Cyperus scariosus R. Br.): A review.“ Proc Indian Natn Sci Acad. Vol. 80. No. 3. 2014]
Main constituents of commercial C.scariosus rhizomes volatile oil were α-copaene (4.3%), cyperene (14.1%), rotundene (6.1%), caryophyllene oxide (3.5%), aristol-9-en-8-one (3.8%), mustakone (4.6%), cyperotundone (7.6%), and α-cyperone (3.0%).
[Fragrant Sesquiterpene Ketones as Trace Constituents in Frankincense Volatile Oil of Boswellia sacra., Niebler, J., Zhuravlova, K., Minceva, M., Buettner, A., Journal of natural products, 79(4), 2016, 1160-1164, Supporting Information]
„… the demand for cypriol has increased because of its unique woody, ambery, and earthy character that is appreciated by perfumers as an alternative to the more expensive agarwood oil which is difficult to reproduce synthetically… Rotundone was found to have the highest odor-activity value of the measured compounds and, together with the other ketones, contributes to the woody-amber character of cypriol oil.“
Of the 21 nitrogen components reported from the essential oil of Cyperus scariosus, epi-guaipyridine (32 mg/kg), guaia-9,11-dienpyridine (9 mg/kg), and cananodine (10 mg/kg) were the most abundant. A new ketone with a significant woody ambery odor, cyperen-8-one, could also be isolated. Potent compounds with an odor activity value (OAV) >1 were cyperen-8-one (2.3), nootkatone (2.9), cyperotundone (6.9), and rotundone (500).
[Constituents of Cypriol Oil (Cyperus scariosus R. Br.): N-Containing Molecules and Key Aroma Components., Clery, R.A., Cason, J.R., Zelenay, V., Journal of agricultural and food chemistry., 4566-4573, 2016] http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00680
In the acetic acid-induced writhing model mice, administration of a methanol extract from C.scariosus leaves showed significant dose-dependent inhibition with maximum inhibition of writhing (46.62%) obtained at 200mg extract/kg body weight, whereas the standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin caused 56.74% writhing inhibition at the same dose.
Higher doses (400mg/kg body weight) of the methanol extract exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity in glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice. The maximum inhibition effect at this dosage was close to that of the standard drug glibenclamide (10mg/kg body weight).
[Antinociceptive and anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanol leaf extract of Cyperus scariosus., Alam, M.A., Jahan, R., Rahman, S., Das, A.K., Rahmatullah, M., Pak J Pharm Sci, 24(1), 2011, 53-60] http://www.pjps.pk/wp-content/_uploads/pdfs/CD-PJPS-24-1-11/Paper-10.pdf
Cyperus scariosus R.Br.; Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D., Indian medicinal plants, Plates, vol.5 t.1010 (1918)