Croton lechleri L. - Euphorbiaceae - sangre de grado, sangre de drago, dragon blood tree, Drachenblutbaum

Tall tree, up to 30m high, native in the primary mountain woods of South America (Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru); bark grey,smooth, producing a thick red sap by injury; flowers white to amber-colored.

„Sangre de Grado extract used by Peruvian natives as a cicatrizant agent, was collected from trees of the species Croton lechleri growing in the Peruvian jungle. The Sangre de Grado was found to contain one alkaloid identified as taspine and which was shown to be the active cicatrizant principle by an in vivo test in mice. This alkaloid exhibited a dose-related cicatrizant effect and an ED50 of 0.375 mg/kg. Experiments with taspine hydrochloride in order to study its mechanism of action in cell culture systems showed that the alkaloid was non-toxic to human foreskin fibroblasts at concentrations below 150 ng/ml and that it had no effect on cell proliferation. On the other hand, taspine hydrochloride was found to increase the migration of human foreskin fibroblasts. This effect on the migration of fibroblasts is probably the mechanism by which Sangre de Grado and taspine hydrochloride accelerate the wound healing process. Using the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis system, we have been able to show that neither Sangre de Grado nor taspine hydrochloride had carcinogenic or tumour promoter activity after 17 months of treatment.“
[Taspine is the Cicatrizant Principle in Sangre de Grado Extracted from Croton lechleri. Vaisberg, Abraham J., et al., Planta medica Vol.55(2), 1989, 140-143]

„The results of in vitro and in vivo studies largely support the majority of ethnomedical uses of sangre de drago including the treatment of diarrhea, wounds, tumors, stomach ulcers, herpes infection, the itching, pain and swelling of insect bites, and other conditions. Clinical studies of sangre de drago products have reported positive results in the treatment of traveler's and watery diarrhea and the symptoms of insect bites. “
[Review of Sangre de Drago (Croton lechleri)-a south american tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research. Jones, Kenneth., The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, Vol.9(6), 2003, 877-896]

„A look at the indigenous species traded highlights important conservation threats. Croton lechleri (dragon’s blood) and Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw) are immensely popular at a local level, and each contributes to about 7% to the overall market value. Both species are also widely traded internationally. The latex of Croton is harvested by cutting or debarking the whole tree… Croton is a pioneer species, and apart from C.lechleri, a few other species of the genus have found their way onto the market. Sustainable production of this genus seems possible, but the process needs to be closely monitored. The current practice does not appear sustainable, given that the bulk of Croton is wild-harvested.“
[Markets, healers, vendors, collectors: the sustainability of medicinal plant use in northern Peru. Bussmann, Rainer W., and Douglas Sharon., Mountain Research and Development, Vol.29(2), 2009, 128-134]

The purified oligomeric proanthocyanidin from the latex of C-lechleri is called Crofelemer (USAN, CAS 148465-45-6, trade name Fulyzaq) and used „for the treatment of diarrhea associated with anti-HIV drugs such as nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors“.

„Crofelemer inhibited the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel with maximum inhibition of ~60% and an IC50 ~7 μM… Crofelemer was also found to strongly inhibit the intestinal calcium-activated Cl− channel TMEM16A by a voltage-independent inhibition mechanism with maximum inhibition >90% and IC50 ~6.5 μM. The dual inhibitory action of crofelemer on two structurally unrelated prosecretory intestinal Cl− channels may account for its intestinal antisecretory activity.“
[Crofelemer, an Antisecretory Antidiarrheal Proanthocyanidin Oligomer Extracted from Croton lechleri, Targets Two Distinct Intestinal Chloride Channels. Tradtrantip, L.; Namkung, W.; Verkman, A. S., Molecular Pharmacology, Vol.77(1), 2010, 69-78]

„In studies in diarrheal illness associated with primarily a secretory component, such as cholera, travelers’ diarrhea and acute infectious diarrhea, crofelemer has shown improvements in stool consistency and duration of symptoms. Less clear, but interesting, results have been observed in other diarrheal diseases associated with a mixed pathology, including diarrhea in patients with HIV and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.“
[Crofelemer for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. Cottreau, Jessica, et al., Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol.6(1), 2012, 17-23]

„As an incense material, it is particularly attractive for coloring mixtures, whereas its scent is neither particularly strong nor characteristic.“
[Niebler, Johannes, „Incense Materials“ in: Buettner, Andrea, ed. Springer Handbook of Odor. Springer, 2017, 73]

croton_lechleri_muell._arg.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2017/10/09 20:22 von andreas