Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari - syn.Commiphora mukul; Balsamodendrum mukul Hook. ex Stocks; Balsamodendrum wightii Arn. - Burseraceae
guggul, Indian bdellium-tree, mukul myrrh tree, Guggul, Indische Myrrhe
Shrub, up to 4m high, native to India, Pakistan; branches aromatic, thorny and knotty with papery bark; leaves sessile, alternate or fascicled, 1-3-foliolate, leaflets obovate, serrate, glabrous, the terminal sessile or subsessile. „Plants dimorphic, one having bisexual and male flowers, and the other having female flowers with staminodes…“
„It is the source of Guggul or Indian Bdellium [Bdellium indicum (lat.), Indisches Bdellium, Falsche Myrrhe (germ.)], a gum-resin that exudes from the branches. It is largely used as an incense, in medicine and perfumery, and as a substitute for African Bdellium. It is also used to adulterate myrrh.“ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=250063169
Volatile components of the essential oil from the gum resin were α-pinene, myrcene, cadinene, geraniol, methylheptanone, eugenol, α-phellandrene, limonene, bornyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, linalool, methylchavicol and α-terpineol.
[Constituents of the essential oil from Commiphora mukul gum resin., Saxena, V.K., Sharma, R.N., J Med Arom Plant Sci, 20, 1998, 55-56.]
The hexane extract of guggul contained cembrene (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-2,4,7,11-tetraene), cembrene A (1-isopropenyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-4,8,12-triene), cembrenol (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-3,7,11-trienol), mukulol (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-3,7,11-trienol), and verticillol (4,8,12,15,15-pentamethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-3,7-dien-12-ol).
[Chemistry of ayurvedic crude drugs-II: Guggulu (resin from Commiphora mukul)-2: Diterpenoid constituents., Patil, V.D., Nayak, U.R., Dev, S., Tetrahedron, 29(2), 1973, 341-348]
[1H and 13C assignments of five cembrenes from guggul., Bai, S., Jain, M., Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 46(8), 2008, 791-793]
„The yellwoish resin produced by the stem of the plant has been widely used in Ayuevedic medicine for more than 2000 years, mainly to treat arthritis inflammation and to improve hepatic anitoxidant defense system.“
[A review on bioactive compounds and medicinal uses of Commiphora mukul., Jasuja, N.D., Choudhary, J., Sharama, P., Sharma, N., Joshi, S.C., Journal of Plant Sciences, 7(4), 2012, 113]