Cocos nucifera L. - Arecaceae - coconut palm, Kokospalme

„The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut…The smell of coconuts comes from the 6-pentyloxan-2-one molecule, known as delta-decalactone in the food and fragrance industries.“

„When coconut meat is expressed hydraulically the oil will contain the volatiles substances. The crude coconut oil is subsequently steam distilled in order to recover these odorous components. An essential oil of coconut is produced this way. However, the so-called coconut absolute is produced by alcohol extraction of the crude coconut oil.“
[Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin. 1960, 185; reprint Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin. Lulu. com, 2017, 120]

„Both delta-C8, -C10 lactones and n-octanol were the major volatile components and responsible for the characteristic aroma of coconut meat.“
[LIN, FANG M., and WALTER F. WILKENS. „Volatile flavor components of coconut meat.“ Journal of Food Science 35.5 (1970): 538-539]

„The characteristic coconut aroma from the edible, white flesh (endosperm) of the seeds is mainly due to delta-lactones: (R)-(+)-delta-hexalactone, (R)-(+)-delta-octalactone, (R)-(+)-delta-decalactone and (R)-(+)-delta-dodecalactone.“
[Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Ngassoum MB. Solid-phase-microextraction-headspace aroma compounds of coconut (Cocos nucifera) milk and meat from Cameroon. Ernährung/Nutrition 2003;27(7/8):300-303] cited by

(R)-(+)-delta-hexalactone (R=CH3), -octalactone (R=n-Propyl), -decalactone (R=n-Pentyl) …

„An analysis of the constituents of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water from two fruit varieties (green and yellow) by hydrodistillation and solvent extraction showed the presence of alcohols, ketones, thiols, carboxylic acids, phenols, and esters… Coconut water has a sui generis flavor, being sweet and slightly acid… The present work reports a study of the low molecular weight, hydrodistillable or petroleum ether extractable constituents of the coconut water from the green and yellow varieties of coconut collected in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH assay…
The essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation process from the two varieties of coconut water, green (sample 1), and yellow (sample 2), showed different chemical compositions. The essential oil from the water of the green coconut variety was characterized by a high level of ketones (42.5%) and esters (29.9%), followed by aldehydes (14.5%) and alcohols (3.2%), and representing 90.1% of the total sample. The major constituents were identified as, 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (30.5%) and n-propyl ethanoate (15.3%). The essential oil analysis from the water of the yellow coconut variety was characterized by the presence of thiols (46.2%), carboxylic acids (23.7%), alcohols (12.1%), esters (10.4%), lactones (4.5%), and aldehydes (1.7%), and represented 98.6% of the total sample. The major components of the essential oil of this sample were 3-mercapto-decane (46.2%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (18.4%).
The compounds of the coconut water from the green and yellow varieties were analyzed in samples obtained by extraction using petroleum ether as solvent. Eight compounds were identified in sample 1' (green variety), and were characterized as esters (58.3%), ketones (33.5%), and diols (8.0%), representing 99.8% of the total extract. For the specimen of the yellow variety, five components were identified and characterized as diols (74.3%), esters (16.7%), and ketones (6.2%), representing 97.2% of total extract. All of the five constituents identified in the sample 2' (yellow variety) are present in the composition of the green variety, sample 1', but at different concentrations. For the green variety, the major constituents were n-propyl ethanoate (53.5%) and 4-methylpentan-2-one (29.0%), whereas for the yellow variety, the major constituents were butane-1,3-diol (67.7%) and n-propyl ethanoate (16.7%).“
[Constituents and antioxidant activity of two varieties of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.). Fonseca, Aluísio M. da, et al., Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Vol.19(1B), 2009, 193-198]

Köhler, F.E., Medizinal Pflanzen, Vol.3, t.76 (1890)

cocos_nucifera_l.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2018/01/06 10:46 von andreas