Cnidium officinale Makino - Apiaceae - cnidium, chunkung, cheongung (kor.), senkyū (jap.)
Perennial herb, up to 60cm tall, native to Korea, China and Japan, extensively cultivated there; leaves 2-pinnately compound, leaflets ovate to laceolate, serrate; flowers in large compound umbels, white.
The dried rhizome is used for woman' diseases, anaemia, weekness and pain. The drug is regarded as vasodilating, sedative, intestinal blood flow increasing, antifebrile, antispasmodic, antibacterial, inotrope, and antioxidant.
[Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila, 1998, 776-77]
„Pregnenolone (1), coniferylferulate (2) and nine mono-and dihydroxyphthalide derivatives (5-13) were isolated from the commercial C. officinale rhizome. Their structures were determined from the spectroscopic data and the dihydroxyphthalides senkyunolide-H (11) and-I (12) and senkyunolide-J (13) were synthesized from the major components ligustilide (14) and senkyunolide-A (16), respectively. These oxygenated phthalides were absent in the fresh C. officinale rhizome and they were shown to be derived from the major volatile phthalides during storage of the crude drug. Coniferylferulate (2) also decomposes partly during storage, giving ferulic acid.“
[Studies on the constituents of umbelliferae plants. XV Constituents of Cnidium officinale: Occurrence of pregnenolone, coniferylferulate and hydroxyphthalides., Kobayashi, M., Fujita, M., Mitsuhashi, H., Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin, Vol.35(4), 1987, 1427-1433]
„Chunkung is one of the important folk medicines for counteracting a variety of diseases, and is particularly used as a traditional oriental medicine in the treatment of female genital inflammatory diseases. Sixty-eight volatile flavour constituents, which make up 95.7% of the total volatile content of the oil, were detected in chunkung essential oil, which contained 25 hydrocarbons (15.9%), eight aldehydes (0.7%), 13 alcohols (11.5%), three ketones (0.5%), nine esters (1.4%), three oxides (0.4%), one acid (trace), five phthalides (64.8%) and one miscellaneous component (0.1%). cis-Butylidene phthalide (33.2%) was the most abundant component followed by 3-butyl phthalide (21.1%), cis-3-isobutylidene phthalide (10.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (8.5%).“
[Constituents of the essential oil of Cnidium officinale Makino, a Korean medicinal plant., Choi, H.S., Kim, M.S.L., Sawamura, M., Flavour and fragrance journal, Vol.17(1), 2002, 49-53]
„The [dried] rhizomes of C. officinale (Cinidii Rhizoma)… are used in the treatment of pain, inflammation, menstrual disturbance, and anti-vitamin deficiency disease, and also act as a blood pressure depressant. In addition, there are several reports suggesting that they have pharmacological properties to tumor metastasis and angiogenesis and that they act as an inhibitor of high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells… C.officinale and L. chuanxiong are closely related species with 98% of sequence identity… C. officinale had the greatest activity to quench NO radical. The IC50 values were 57.25 and 76.50 µg/ml for C. officinale and L. chuanxiong, respectively. [control: ascrobic acid 9.88µg/ml]“
[Free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. methanolic extracts., Ramalingam, M., Yong-Ki, P., Pharmacognosy magazine, Vol.6(24), 2010, 323]
„The anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of a methanol extract of the rhizome of Cnidium officinale were investigated. Four compounds, namely falcarindiol, 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-dihydroligustilide, ligustilidiol, and senkyunolide H were isolated from the extract of the rhizome of Cnidium officinale and their structures were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by comparison with previously reported data. These compounds showed anti-inflammatory activities, measured as inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, with IC 50 values of 4.31 ± 5.22, 152.95 ± 4.23, 72.78 ± 5.13, and 173.42 ± 3.22 μM, respectively. They also inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression induced by LPS. Among these compounds, falcarindiol was found to have anti-proliferative effect against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by induction of a G 0 /G 1 cell cycle block of the cells, with an IC 50 value of 35.67 μM.“
[Components of rhizome extract of Cnidium officinale Makino and their in vitro biological effects., Bae, K.E., Choi, Y.W., Kim, S.T., Kim, Y.K., Molecules, Vol.16(10), 2011, 8833-8847]
„GC/MS analyses were carried out with the direct- and solid phase microextraction (SPME) of SFE obtained from rhizomes. In addition, GC/MS analysis was performed for the rhizomes of C. officinale using SPME… SPME-GC/MS analysis of the rhizomes revealed the separation of 23 components. Among these, β-phellandrene (20.38%), dictyotene (12.98%), β-pinene (10.59%), β-selinene (9.45%), eugenol (7.71%) and β-farnesene (7.09%) were found to be major components. In the SFE analyzed by direct-GC/MS, linoleic acid (19.26%), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (18.98%), hexadecanoic acid (12.15%), and β-selinene (9.44%) were identified as major components. Whereas, 3,4-dihydrocoumarin (16.94%), shyobunone (14.07%), dictyotene (10.65%), p-cresol (10.17%), zierone (6.36%) and umbellulone (5.71%) were major components in the SFE analyzed by SPME-GC/MS.“
[Comparison of volatile composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extract from rhizomes of Korean medicinal plant ‘CHUN-KUNG’ (Cnidium officinale Makino) by direct - and SPME-GC/MS., Kim, S., Yeon, B.R., Sowndhararajan, K., Jung, J.W., Jhoo, J.W. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(9), 2014, ]