Cinchona pubescens Vahl - syn.Cinchona succirubra Pavon - Rubiaceae
red cinchona, Peruvian bark, Roter Chinarinden-Baum
Tree or large shrub, up to 12m tall; leaves ovate-elliptic; flowers white or pink. „This is the most frequently cultivated species and hybrid parent of Cinchona. It is variable morphologically in cultivation and also in its native range“
„The genus Cinchona contains about forty species of trees. All cinchonas are indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Amazonian area of the Andes on either side of the equator (from Colombia to Bolivia). They can also be
found in the northern part of the Andes (on the eastern slopes of the central and western ranges). They are now widely cultivated in many tropical countries for their commercial value, although they are not indigenous to those areas… C. pubescens is a rapidly growing broad-leaved tree (about 1-2 m height increment/year) with a dense canopy, achieving harvestable bark within 6 years. The tree trunks are beaten and the peeling bark is removed (at least 40 cm up from the soil level). The bark partially regenerates on the tree and, after a few years and several cycles of bark removal, the trees are uprooted and new ones are planted… The bark of wild species may yield a quinine content of as high as 7%, whereas cultivated crops yield contents up to 15%.“
For the recovery of quinine C.ledgeriana (= Cinchona calisaya var. ledgeriana ) and C.officinalis (= C.calisaya) are preferred, they provide the so-called factory bark. Main alkaloids are quinine, quinidine, cinchonidine and cinchonine.
[Kommentar zum DAB 10, 1991]