Capsicum chinense Jacq. - Solanaceae - yellow lantern chili
There are some extreme hot cultivars:
Capsicum chinense Jack. cv. Scotch Bonnet (named for its resemblance to a Tam o' Shanter hat) is found mainly in the Caribbean islands.
Capsicum chinense Jack. cv. Habanero: „Unripe habaneros are green, and they color as they mature. Common colors are orange and red, but white, brown, and pink are also seen. Typically, a ripe habanero chili is 2–6 cm (0.8–2.4 in) long. Habanero chilis are very hot, rated 100,000–350,000 on the Scoville scale… The habanero's heat, its fruity, citrus-like flavor, and its floral aroma have made it a popular ingredient in hot sauces and spicy foods.“ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habanero
„Habaneros are one of the hottest chillies. The sharpness is caused by capsaicin. In seeds and seed strips concentrations up to 1500 ppm may occur. An aqueous solution with a concentration of 0.5 ppm capsaicin is already perceived as sharp by most people. Scoville scale values for Habaneros may reach 100,000 to 1,001,304 units. The taste is, apart from the extreme sharpness, tropical-fruity. In Mexico, Brazil and Peru Habaneros are an integral part of the kitchen.“ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habanero
„The steam volatile components of Yucatan Habanero chile pepper (Capsicum chinense Jack. cv. Habanero) at two ripening stages (green and orange) were analyzed using GC and GC/MS. Both samples had several compounds in common. One hundred and two compounds were identified, from which (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl 3-methylbutanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl 3-methylbutanoate, hexyl pentanoate, 3,3-dimethylcyclohexanol, and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents. During Habanero chile pepper maturation, the majority of volatile compounds decreased or even disappeared, some of them with green odour notes while esters, which have fruity odour notes, increased at the same time.“
[Changes in volatile compounds of Habanero chile pepper (Capsicum chinense Jack. cv. Habanero) at two ripening stages. Pino, J., Sauri-Duch, E., Marbot, R., Food chemistry, Vol.94(3), 2006, 394-398]