Capsicum annuum L. - Solanaceae - (seet) bell pepper, Paprika, Spanischer Pfeffer
„This species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated capsicums. The species encompasses a wide variety of shapes and sizes of peppers, both mild and hot, ranging from bell peppers to chili peppers. Cultivars are descended from the wild American bird pepper still found in warmer regions of the Americas.“ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsicum_annuum
„The practice of referring woody plants of this species to Capsicum frutescens Linnaeus has little merit since herbaceous plants often become woody with age, and other characters supposed to distinguish the two species occur in various populations in both herbaceous and woody plants.“ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200020513
Major aroma compounds identified in Californian green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var.grossum) volatile oil obtained by vacuum steam-distillation-continuous-extraction included 2-methoxy-3-isobutyl pyrazine, (E)-beta-ocimene, limonene, methyl salicylate, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol. 2-methoxy-3-isobutyl pyrazine was found to possess potent odor with an odor treshold of 0.002ppb in water, with 70-80% of untrained panelists indicated that the odor of dilute water solutions of this compound was similar to that of fresh green bell peppers.
[Characterization of some volatile constituents of bell peppers. Buttery, R. G., Seifert, R. M., Guadagni, D. G., Ling, L. C., Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, Vol.17(6), 1969, 1322-1327]
2-methoxy-3-isobutyl pyrazine (2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine)
„Dynamic headspace gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and sniffing port detection were used to analyze the volatile compounds of a Dutch commercial Capsicum cv. Mazurka at the ripening stages green, turning, and red. The samples were prepared by either cutting or blending of the fruits. The different bell pepper samples obtained had several odor compounds in common, i.e., 2,3-butanedione (caramel), 1-penten-3-one (chemical/pungent, spicy), hexanal (grassy), 3-carene (red bell pepper, rubbery), (Z)-β-ocimene (rancid, sweaty), octanal (fruity), and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (green bell pepper). During bell pepper maturation the majority of volatile compounds, of which several had green-related odor notes, decreased or even disappeared.“
[Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and sniffing port analyses of volatile compounds of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) at different ripening stages., Luning, P.A., de Rijk, T., Wichers, H.J., Roozen, J.P., Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, Vol.42(4), 1994, 977-983]
„By application of gas chromatography–olfactometry on aroma extracts prepared from Hungarian sweet bell pepper powder (HBP) and Moroccan sweet bell pepper powder (MBP), 35 and 42 odour-active compounds were detected in the HBP and the MBP, respectively. The identification experiments, in combination with the flavour dilution (FD) factors obtained by application of aroma extract dilution analysis, revealed that β-ionone (violet-like), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol; caramel-like), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like) and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acids had the highest odour activities (FD factors of 8192 to 32768) among the 33 odorants that could be identified in the HBP. All odorants identified in the HBP were also characterized as odour-active volatiles in the MBP. The overall different aroma of the Moroccan sample could, however, be attributed to the lower FD factors of the five key odorants mentioned above and, in addition, to the higher FD factors of 10 odorants not present among the aroma compounds of the HBP, e.g. (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. In total, 20 odour-active volatiles are reported here for the first time as volatile bell pepper constituents.“
[Important odorants of sweet bell pepper powder (Capsicum annuum cv. annuum): differences between samples of Hungarian and Morrocan origin. Zimmermann, M., Schieberle, P., European Food Research and Technology, Vol.211(3), 2000, 175-180]
„The composition of the volatile constituents of the bell pepper extract prepared by SDE is unique. As already discovered by Buttery et al., (3E)-3-hepten-2-one (1, 5.3%), 1-nonen-4-one (2, 10.2%), (2E)-2-nonen-4-one (3, 2.8%), (2E,5E)-2,5-nonadien-4-one (4, 7.9%), and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (5, ca. 3.5%) are the main
compounds. In addition, we have newly identified (2Z,5E)-2,5-nonadien-4-one (7, 1.6%), (5E)-1,5-nonadien-4-one (8, 1.8%), and (2E)-2-hepten-4-one (9, 0.35%); all three exhibit green, leafy, herbaceous, and hay-like notes. As indicated by the typical asymmetric shape of the peak, compound 7 readily isomerizes to compound 4. Linalool (4.8%) and β-damascenone (1.3%), compounds with an important aroma impact, contribute to the fruity aspect of the bell pepper flavor. In the total extract, three sulfur compounds could be detected: the already known heptane-2-thiol (6, 0.2%) (6), the new diastereoisomers of 3-methyl-5-propyl-1,2-dithiolane (10, 0.9% and 0.7%) structurally related to the heptenones 1 and 9, and 1-(2-thienyl)-pentan-1-one (11, trace), already identified in yeast (11), which may be derived from the nonadienones.“
Several (19) new thiols were identified, aliphatic saturated and unsaturated thiols, mercapto-ketones, mercapto-alcohols, dithiols, methylthio-thiols, one thiophene-thiol and two dithiolanes. All of them are structurally related to the unsaturated C7- and C9-ketones. Organoleptically they reach from green, vegetal, fruity, to sulfury, rubbery, rotten.
[New Volatile Sulfur-Containing Constituents in a Simultaneous Distillation Extraction Extract of Red Bell Peppers (Capsicum annuum)., Naef, R., Velluz, A., Jaquier, A., Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 56(2), 2007, 517-527]
Köhler,F.E., Medizinal Pflanzen, vol.2 t.127 (1890)