Cannabis sativa L. - Cannabaceae - hemp, marihuana, pot, (Saat-) Hanf
Erect annual herb, up to 2m tall, native to Central Asia; stems fibrous; leaves palmate; flowers small, uni-sexual, wind-pollinated; fruit a nut, 3.5-5mm long and 2.5-4mm broad, gray (C.sativa subsp. sativa) or 2.5-3.5mm long and 1.8-2.5mm broad, brown (C.sativa subsp. spontanea Serebrjakova = Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.).
Main components of the volatiles from fresh and dried hemp buds are monoterpenes like β-myrcene (67%/32%), limonene (16%/16%) and linalool (2.8%/5.0%). Sesquiterpenes present in the oil of dried material are e.g. β-caryophyllene (1%/5%), α-humulene (0.2%/2%), (E)-α-farnesene, β-elemene, (Z)-α-bergamotene, α-guaiene, α-cadinene, γ-muurolene, γ-curcumene, viridiflorene (ledene), α-longipinene, γ-cis-bisabolene, γ-trans-bisabolene, β-eudesmol (β-selinenol), α-eudesmol (α-selinenol), and α-epi-bisabolol.
[The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa., Ross, S.A., ElSohly, M.A., Journal of natural products, Vol.59(1), 1996, 49-51] http://www.medicinalgenomics.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/cannabis_volatiles.pdf
Cannabis herb and the resin, hashish, show clear differences in their volatile chemical profiles, mostly resulting from photooxidation. Hashish headspace contain remarkable amounts (1.1-14.9%, median value 10.2%) of the rare monoterpene 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane (hashishene). This unusual compound is formed during the manufacture of hashish by light induced rearrangement of β-myrcene, which is particularly abundant in fresh cannabis herb.
[Multidimensional analysis of cannabis volatile constituents: Identification of 5, 5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo [2.1. 1] hexane as a volatile marker of hashish, the resin of Cannabis sativa L., Marchini, M., Charvoz, C., Dujourdy, L., Baldovini, N., Filippi, J.J., Journal of Chromatography A, 1370, 2014, 200-215]
Kohl,F.G., Die officinellen Pflanzen der Pharmacopoea Germanica, t.31 (1891-1895)
Cannabis sativa var.sativa
© Rolf Marschner (2004), www.botanische-spaziergaenge.at