Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray - syn. Pimela luzonica Blume - Burseraceae - elemi, manila elemi, Manilaelemi
Tree, up to 35m high, native to the Philippines, common in primary forests at low and medium altitudes.
„The tree secretes a soft white resin called Phillipine elemi, from which is borne out in the air and used as incense.“
„Aromatic elemi oil is steam distilled from the resin. It is a fragrant resin with a sharp pine and lemon-like scent… Elemi resin is chiefly used commercially in varnishes and lacquers, and certain printing inks. It is used as a herbal medicine to treat bronchitis, catarrh, extreme coughing, mature skin, scars, stress, and wounds.“
Extraction of the oleoresin using volatile solvents produces a resinoid with the olfactive description 'Aromatic, fresh, woody, resinous'.
Steam distillation of the resinoid yields elemi oil with olfactive description 'Spicy, peppery, zesty, sparkling'.
„Elemi oil is responsible for the fresh-lemony, peppery odor of crude elemi and of elemi resinoid. The main constituent of the oil is phellandrene, a very unstable terpene, widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Small amounts of high-boiling, oxygenated components lend character and interesting dry-out notes to this oil which is found in amounts of 25-28% in elemi.
[Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin. 1960, 185; reprint Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin. Lulu. com, 2017, 144-145 (orig.221-223)]
„Elemi gum is collected from several species but mainly Canarium luzonicum (Micu)A.Gray (syn.C.commune Wild.) in Malaysia and the Philippines.
[Robin Clery „Fragrant adventures in Madagascar“, in: Swift, Karl AD, ed. Advances in flavours and fragrances: From the sensation to the synthesis. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2007, 92-98]
Manila elemi resin is constituted of tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids (70-80%) and essential oil (20-30%). An extract of the resin contained monoterpenes (30.8%) and sesquiterpenes (0.4%). Main monoterpenes were limonene (23.5%), α-phellandrene (4.2%), sabinene (0.7%), and γ-terpinene (0.5%). Main sesquiterpenes were elemol, β-eudesmol, and guaiol.
[Brieskorn, Carl Heinz, and Georg Krauß. „Monoterpene, Sesquiterpene und dimere Phellandrene aus Manila-Elemi.“ Planta medica 52.04 (1986): 305-307]
The essential oil of manila elemi contained limonene (54-56%), α-phellandrene (8-17%), elemol (6-13%), sabinene (3-5%), elemicin (2-4%), β-phellandrene (2%), α-terpinolene (2%), and α-terpineol (1-2%).
[Gael, Kemal Hiisnii Can Bogart Temel, and Mine Kiirkeiioglu. „The composition of Manila elemi oil.“ Flavour and fragrance journal 8 (1993): 35-37]
„Manila elemi oil, hydrodistilled from Manila elemi gum, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty-nine compounds constituting together 99.2% of the oil were identified, limonene being the most abundant (56%)… The other main components identified were α-phellandrene (17.6%), elemol (6.3%), sabinene (5.7%), α-terpinolene (2.8%), elemicin (2.4%), and β-phellandrene (2.3%). An interesting feature of this oil is the occurence of phellandrene dimers.
… oil kept in a colorless container …showed some significant changes. The relative percentages of limonene remained more or less the same… While the relative amounts of α-phellandrene and sabinene decreased almost by half, there was an approximately two-fold increase in the percentage amounts of elemol, elemicin, α-terpinolene and a number of minor compounds such as α-phellandrene dimer.“
[The composition of Manila elemi oil, Merle A. Villanueva, Rosalinda C. Torres, Kemal Hüsnü Can Başer, Temel Özek, Mine Kürkçüoǧlu, Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Vol.8(1), 2006, 35 - 37]