Brassica nigra (L.) Koch - syn.Sinapis nigra - Brassicaceae - black mustard, Schwarzer Senf
Annual herb, up to 2m tall, native to the Mediterranean, Europe, West Asia, naturalized and cultivated elsewhere; stem ercect, branched above; basal leaves lyre-shaped, upper ones oblong-lanceolate; flowers yellow; seeds hard, dark brown to black, 1-2 mm in diam.
„On the basis of recent molecular studies and critical reevaluation of morphology, it appears that Brassica nigra should be retained in Sinapis, as was originally described by Linnaeus.“
Allyl isothiocyanate with its strong pungent mustard smell is the product of enzymatic hydrolysis of sinigrin (2-propenylglucosinolate) by crushing the seed.
„The most predominant constituent of Brassica nigra is allyl isothiocyanate, which accounts for more than 90% of the total volatile compounds.“
[Comparison of simultaneous distillation extraction and solid-phase microextraction for the determination of volatile flavor components., Cai, J., Liu, B., Su, Q., Journal of Chromatography A, Vol.930(1), 2001, 1-7]
Sinigrin concentration in B. nigra seeds decrease from seedling to early flowering stage, and increase in the late flowering stage and then decrease again during seed maturation.
[Developmental changes of sinigrin and glucoraphanin in three Brassica species (Brassica nigra, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea var. italica).,Rangkadilok, N., Nicolas, M.E., Bennett, R.N., Premier, R.R., Eagling, D.R., Taylor, P.W., Scientia Horticulturae, Vol.96(1), 2002, 11-26]
Köhler, F.E., Medizinal Pflanzen, vol. 1: t. 14 (1887) [W. Müller]