Bixa orellana L. - Bixaceae - achiote (span.), annatto, lipstick tree, Annattostrauch, Orleansbaum

Evergreen shrub or small tree, native to the tropical America; leaves opposite, simple, cordate-ovate or triangular-ovate; flowers 5cm across, borne in terminal panicles, with 5 caducous sepals and 5 pink petals, numerous stamens; fruit a orange-red ovoid capsule; seeds numerous, red-brown, obovoid-angular, 4-5mm.
„Bixa orellana is cultivated for the red, oil-soluble pigment, bixin, which is contained in the seed coat. It is used commercially as a food colorant and as a fabric dye. A paste prepared from the seeds is used as a skin paint (a common name is „lipstick tree“) and as a condiment. Other parts of the plant are widely used in tropical America for a variety of medicinal purposes.“

„The inedible fruit is harvested for its seeds, which contain annatto, also called bixin… It is used to color food products, such as cheeses, fish, and salad oil… The pigment has E-number E160b. The seeds are collected from wild-growing bushes or from plantations, in Latin America, Africa (e.g. Kenya) and Asia. However, since there is no strong organization promoting the use of annatto, the color beta carotene, which is more expensive, has pushed the natural pigment out of many applications.“

„all-E-Geranylgeraniol is present in the oleoresin from Bixa orellana to the extent of 57%, or approximately 1% of dry seeds which makes B. orellana the richest known source of this important C20-terpene alcohol. Other compounds isolated for the first time from seeds of Bixa were the terpenes farnesylacetone, geranylgeranyl octadecanoate and geranylgeranyl formate, δ-tocotrienol, and an apocarotenoid.“
[Terpenoids and an apocarotenoid from seeds of Bixa orellana., Jondiko, I.J., Pattenden, G., Phytochemistry, Vol.28(11), 2989, 3159-3162]

„An organic extract of Annatto (Bixa orellana) leaves obtained in 95% ethanol was examined for in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion and tube dilution methods. The extract (5 mg/ml) produced antimicrobial action in agar diffusion assays against standard strains of Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus faecalis while exerting only slight action against Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Candida utilis, and Aspergillus niger.“
[Antimicrobial activity of Annatto (Bixa orellana) extract., Irobi, O.N., Moo-Young, M., Anderson, W.A., Pharmaceutical Biology, Vol.34(2), 1996, 87-90]

„The [methanol] extract significantly and dose-dependently reduced the writhing reflex in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Antidiarrhoeal activity was supported by a statistically significant decrease in the total number of stools (including wet stools) in castor oil-induced diarrhoea model. A statistically significant delay in the passage of charcoal meal was observed at 500 mg/kg in the gastrointestinal motility test. The extract was further evaluated in vitro for antioxidant and antibacterial activity. It revealed radical scavenging properties in the DPPH assay (IC50 = 22.36 μg/ml) and antibacterial activity against selected causative agents of diarrhoea and dysentery, including Shigella dysenteriae.“
[Preliminary pharmacological screening of Bixa orellana L. leaves., Shilpi, J.A., Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, M., Uddin, S.J., Alam, M.S., Sadhu, S.K., Seidel, V., Journal of ethnopharmacology, Vol.108(2), 3006, 264-271]

Martius, C., Eichler, A.G., Urban, I., Flora Brasiliensis, vol.13(1): f.55, t.87 (1871)

bixa_orellana_l.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2016/11/26 16:48 von andreas