Berberis japonica (Thunb.) R. Br. - Berberidaceae - syn. Mahonia japonica (Thunb.) DC.; Ilex japonica Thunb.
Japanese mahonia, Japanese ashberry, Japanische Mahonie
Evergreen shrub, up to 2m high, native to Eastern Asia (Taiwan), also cultivated as ornamental (Japan, Europe, US); leaves abaxially pale green, adaxially deep green, oblong, 15-27cm long, with 4-6 pairs of sessile leaflets, leaflets ovate, margin with 2-4 teeth on proximal side, 3-7 teeth on distal margin; inflorescence 5-10-fascicled drooping racemes; flowers sulfury-yellow, fragrant; berry dark purple, ovoid, ca. 8×4mm.
GC/MS analysis of floral volatiles of M.japonica collected on PDMS/carbotrap as well as Porapak Q showed the main components (E)-β-ocimene (57.0%), (Z)-β-ocimene (3.5%), benzyl alcohol (14.0%), citronellol (6.7%), benzaldehyde (4.1%), indole (2.6%), linalool (2.2%), and geraniol (1.3%). Minor components were cis-rose oxide (0.5%), 2-phenyl ethanol (0.5%), heptanal (0.1%), nonanal (0.1%), decanal (0.2%), citronellal (0.1%), cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, methyl geranate (0.4%), and β-farnesene (0.1%) e.g. among many other compounds present in traces.
„An experiment with photoperiods of 6 and 9 h at constant temperature (10±1 °C) demonstrated that photoperiod was the stimulus for enhanced emission of most volatiles. Small quantitative differences in emitted fragrance composition were observed between light and dark periods and between plants acclimatised to different photoperiods. Maximum rates of emission occurred in the middle of the light period; aromatic compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and indole) displayed a more rapid increase and subsequent decline compared with monoterpenes (cis- and trans-ocimene and linalool). When the photoperiod was extended from 6 to 9 h, maximum rates of emission continued throughout the additional 3 h. Total emission (μg/h) of volatiles was 2-fold greater in the day-time (DT) (39.7 μg/h) compared with the night-time (NT) (19.8 μg/h) under a 6 h photoperiod and was not significantly different from total emission under a 9 h photoperiod.“
[Picone, Joanne M., Hazel S. MacTavish, and Robin A. Clery. „Emission of floral volatiles from Mahonia japonica (Berberidaceae).“ Phytochemistry 60.6 (2002): 611-617]
Mahonia japonica / Japan-Mahonie, Rolf Marschner, http://www.botanische-spaziergaenge.at