Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R.Br. - syn.Baptisia tinctoria (L.) Vent.; Sophora tinctoria L. - Fabaceae
(yellow) wild indigo, horseflyweed, indigo-broom, rattleweed, Wilder Indigo, Färberhülse, Baptisie
Perennial herb, up to 1m tall, native to Northern America; leaves alternate, tripinnate, leaflets 1-2cm long, ovate nearly sessile, fragile, black when dried; flowers in axillary and terminal clusters, bright yellow; pods 7-15mm, black; seeds yellowish brown, 2mm.
Baptisia tinctoriae radix, baptisia root, is used to treat infections of the upper respiratory tract, colds, tonsillitis, inflammation of the throat, stomatitis, and fever.
[Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Springer 2010]
„Baptisia comes from the Greek word for dye and tinctoria comes from the Latin word for dye, all of which somewhat redundantly gets the point across that this is a dye plant which was used by early Americans as a substitute, albeit an inferior one, for true indigo (genus Indigofera) in making dyes.“
„… indications are: diphtheria with gangrene, scarlet fever, influenza (including intestinal flu), malaria, septic angina, gastric fever, typhus (also paratyphoid), dysentery, enteritis, gastritis, Asiatic cholera, diarrhea with great weakness, prolapse ani, appendicitis, peritonitis and retention of urine.“
[Lehrbuch der Biologischen Heilmittel, Gerhard Madaus, 1938] http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/madaus/baptisia.html
The aboveground parts contain alkaloids of the quinolizidine type (stems 0.45%, leaves 0.08%, at flowering time), mainly cytisine (stem 84%, leaves 72%), N-methylcytisine, anagyrine, and 13-hydroxysparteine.
[The lupine alkaloids of the genus Baptisia (Leguminosae)., Cranmer, M.F., Mabry, T.J., Phytochemistry, 5(6), 1966, 1133-1138]
„Chromatographically purified fractions of aqueous-ethanolic extracts from Baptisia tinctoria roots contained a strong lymphocyte DNA synthesis-stimulating activity… Protein P 4 was immunochemically related to phytohemagglutinin but, in contrast to PHA-P, it exhibited no hemagglutinating activity and no leucagglutinating activity like PHA-L.“
[Immunologically active glycoproteins of Baptisia tinctoria., Beuscher, N., Scheit, K.H., Bodinet, C., Kopanski, L., Planta medica, Vol.55(4), 1989, 358-363]
B.tinctoria roots contain various immunologically active arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs).
[Isolierung und Charakterisierung von immunologisch aktiven Glycoproteinen aus Baptisia tinctoria (Wilder Indigo), Mühlau, A., (Doctoral dissertation, Philipps-Universität Marburg), 2000] http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2000/0117/pdf/dam.pdf
„An acidic arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) isolated from an aqueous extract of the roots of wild indigo [ Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br.] by precipitation with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent consists of L-arabinose (34.0 %) and D-galactose (58.7 %) (1 : 1.7), minor amounts of D-glucuronic acid (4.0 %) and traces of D-rhamnose (2.3 %) and D-glucose (<1 %). The protein part of the AGP mainly contains asparagine/aspartic acid (11.3 %), glutamine/glutamic acid (10.8 %), alanine (8.0 %), serine (8.0 %), leucine (7.0 %) and hydroxyproline (6.3 %). Methylation analysis revealed that the carbohydrate moiety of the glycoprotein has a highly branched structure. The core consists of 3-linked beta- D-galactopyranose units carrying side chains of 6-linked beta- D-galactopyranose in position C(O)6, partly substituted in position C(O)3 by side chains of 5- and 3-linked alpha- L-arabinofuranosyl residues and 4-linked beta- D-galactopyranose units. Galactose and arabinose as well as glucose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid occur in terminal positions.“
[An acidic arabinogalactan-protein from the roots of Baptisia tinctoria., Wack, M., Classen, B., Blaschek, W., Planta medica, 71(9), 2005, 814-818]
„The influences of different arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) on proliferation and IgM-production of mouse lymphocytes as well as nitrite- and IL6-production of mouse macrophages were investigated in vitro. AGPs have been isolated and purified from roots of Baptisia tinctoria and Echinacea pallida and suspension culture of Echinacea purpurea. Comparing the AGPs, there are differences with regard to fine structure as well as to activities. AGPs from roots of B. tinctoria and E. pallida show high activity in all test systems.“
[Immunomodulatory effects of arabinogalactan-proteins from Baptisia and Echinacea., Classen, B., Thude, S., Blaschek, W., Wack, M., Bodinet, C., Phytomedicine, Vol.13(9), 2006, 688-694] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711305002242
The botanical cabinet [C.Loddiges], vol.6 t.588 (1827) [G.Cooke]