Aucklandia costus Falc. - syn.Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch.; Saussurea lappa Clarke - Asteraceae
costus, Kostuspflanze, Indische Kostuswurzel, 云木香 yun mu xiang (chin.)
Strong erect perennial herb, 1.2-2m high, native in northern India, Kashmir; rootstock 1-5 cm in diam.; basal and lower stem leaves petiolate; petiole 10-40 cm, broadly winged and lobate; leaf blade lyrate, cordate, or triangular-hastate, 20-50 × 10-30 cm; upper leaves on the stem smaller; flowers dark blackish purple.
The roots have been used as incense since ancient times. The essential oil of the roots, Costus root oil (CAS No.8023-88-9) is an excellent fixative with sweet woody odor, used in confecting soap and cosmetics.
From 31 March 2006 fragrances sold in the EU shall no longer contain S.lappa root oil because of its sensitising potential.
(The allergenic components of costus oil, sesquiterpene lactones with α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone structure, could be removed by a procedure involving chemical modificated styrene-divinylbenzene or styrene-acrylonitrile-divinylbenzene resins.)
[Removal of allergens from natural oils by selective binding to polymer supports. II. Application of aminated resins to isoalantolactone and costus oil. Cheminat, Annie, et al., Canadian Journal of Chemistry, Vol.59(10), 1981, 1405-1414]
„Apart from the well-known constituents (+)-β-selinene (2), (−)-β-elemene (4), (+)-β-costol (7), (−)-caryophyllene (17), and (−)-elemol (19) the following sesquiterpenoids have been isolated for the first time from costus root oil (Saussurea lappa CLARKE): (−)-α-selinene (1), (+)-selina-4, 11-diene (3), (−)-α-trans-bergamotene (5), (−)-α-costol (6), (+)-γ-costol (8), (−)-elema-1,3,11 (13)-trien-12-ol (9), (−)-α-costal (11), (+)-γ-costal (12), (+)-γ-costal (13), (−)-elema-1,3,11 (13)-trien-12-al (elemenal, 14), (−)-(E)-trans-bergamota-2,12-dien-14-al (15 [bergamotenal]), (−)-ar-curcumene (16), and (−)-caryophyllene oxide (18). “
[Maurer, Bruno, and Alfred Grieder. „Sesquiterpenoids from costus root oil (Saussurea lappa Clarke).“ Helvetica chimica acta 60.7 (1977): 2177-2190]
The most abundant volatile aroma constituent of costus root oil from Korea and China was (7Z,10Z,13Z)-7,10,13-hexadecatrienal (21-23%, with a seaweed-like odor). Other major components were dehydrocostus lactone (10%), β-elemene (4-5%), valerenol (4-5%), α-curcumene, α-selinene, α-ionone (2.4-2.9%), (+)-γ-costol, elemol, geranyl acetone (1.1-1.3%), and β-ionone (1.1-1.9%) e.g.
[Comparison of Volatile aroma components from Saussurea Lappa CB Clarke Root Oils., Chang, K.M., Kim, G.H., J Food Sci Nutr, Vol.13, 2008, 128-33]
„Essential oil of S. lappa roots was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 39 components of the essential oil of S. lappa roots were identified. The essential oil has higher content of (79.80%) of sesquiterpenoids than monoterpenoids (13.25%). The principal compounds in S. lappa essential oil were dehydrocostus lactone (46.75%), costunolide (9.26%), 8-cedren-13-ol (5.06%), and α-curcumene (4.33%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide were isolated from S. lappa essential oil.“
[Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of Saussurea lappa roots against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Liu, Zhi Long, et al., Parasitology research, Vol.110(6), 2012, 2125-2130]
„The volatile constituents were isolated from the root of S costus cultivated in Chamoli district of Uttrarakhand by hydro distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)… A total 35 aroma compounds representing about 92.81% of the total composition were identified. Aldehyde like (7Z,10Z,13Z)-7,10,13-hexadecaterienal (25.5%) was found as a major compound including other ketones like dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%), alcohols like elemol (5.84%), γ-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%), etc. Esters and acids were found to be completely absent…“
[Volatile constituents of Saussurea costus roots cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas, India., Gwari, G., Bhandari, U., Andola, H.C., Lohani, H., Chauhan, N., Pharmacognosy research, Vol.5(3), 2013, 179]
S. costus is one of the endangered Saussurea species in the Indian Himalayan Region that should be prioritized for conservation (in situ and ex situ). [Saussurea species in Indian Himalayan Region: diversity, distribution and indigenous uses. Butola, Jitendra Singh, and Sher S. Samant., International Journal of Plant Biology, Vol1(1), 2010, e9]
„Saussurea costus is a well-known medicinal plant that is frequently prescribed in various indigenous systems of medicines especially those of India, Tibet, China and Korea. Its most widespread traditional uses have been for the treatment of inflammation of the lungs, cough, cold, ulcer and rheumatism. It is a major ingredient of the ‘Brahmyadi Ghana vati’ which is used for hypertensive control.“
[Saussurea costus: Botanical, chemical and pharmacological review of an ayurvedic medicinal plant. Pandey, Madan Mohan, Subha Rastogi, and Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat., Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol.110(3), 2007, 379-390] http://www2.ups.edu/faculty/bdasher/Chem361/Review_Articles_files/aryvedic%20plant.pdf
Aucklandia costus Falc. as Aplotaxis lappa Decne.
Jacquemont, V., Voyage dans l’Inde pendant les années 1828 à 1832, vol.4(3), t.104 (1844)