Annona squamosa L. - syn.Annona asiatica L. - Annonaceae
番荔枝 fan li zhi (chin.), custard apple, sweetsop, Rahmapfel, Schuppenannone, Süßsack, Zimtapfel
Deciduous tree, up to 8m tall, probably native to northern South America, Central America and the Caribbean, widely cultivated and naturalized in tropics; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, papery thin; flowers green to purple; fruits 5-10cm in diameter, globular or heart-shaped, greenish-yellow outside, pulp white.
„The fruit, sugar-apple or sweetsop, is edible. It contains more than 20% sugar, 2.3% protein, and 0.3% fat. The bast fiber is used for paper making; the roots are used medicinally for dysentery; and the seeds yield up to 20% oil.“
Major constituents of the volatile oil of Malaysian A.squamosa fruits were sesquiterpenoids (65%), mainly epi-α-cadinol (37%).
[Volatile components of Malaysian Annona fruits. Wong, K. C., Khoo, K. H., Flavour and fragrance journal Vol.8(1), 1993, 5-10]
„The chemical composition of the fruit pulp of Annona squamosa growing in the Brazilian Amazon was investigated and compared with data of specimens occurring in Southeast Asia. In accordance with the sweet taste of the fruit pulp the amounts of sugars were found to be quite high (58% of dry mass [with almost equal amounts of glucose, fructose, and saccharose])… The essential oil of the fruit pulp was obtained and its volatile constituents were identified by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-pinene (25.3%), sabinene (22.7%) and limonene (10.1%). The occurrence of the isoricinoleic acid previously reported in the seed oil could not be confirmed.“ Sesquiterpenes accounted for 21.6% of the volatile oils with spathulenol (6.3%), germacrene D (6.0%) and bicyclogermacrene (3.5%).
[Chemical Characterization of the Fruit of Annona squamosa L. Occurring in the Amazon. Andrade, E.H.A., Maria das Graças, B.Z., Maia, J.G.S., Fabricius, H., Marx, F., Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol.14(2), 2001, 227-232]
„Terpenes like α-pinene, β-pinene, linalool, germacrene-D and spathulenol, esters like sec-butyl butanoate, and methyl linolenate, along with benzyl alcohol and two oxygenated sesquiterpenes, were found to be the major volatiles of the fresh pulp.“
[Influence of processing conditions on flavour compounds of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.)., Shashirekha, M.N., Baskaran, R., Rao, L.J., Vijayalakshmi, M.R., Rajarathnam, S., LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41(2), 2008, 236-243]
Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, t.3039-3122, vol.58 [ser.2, vol.5] t.3095 (1831) [L.Guilding]
Annona squamosa fruit on tree, Author: Fpalli, CC BY-SA 3.0