Angelica dahurica (Fischer ex Hoffmann) Bentham & J. D. Hooker ex Franchet & Savatier - Apiaceae
白芷 bai zhi (chin.), Sibirische Engelwurz, Dahurische Engelwurz
Stout perennial 1–2.5m high, native to China, Japan, Korea, Siberia; root strongly aromatic; stem purplish green; flowers white.
var. dahurica: Ovary and fruit glabrous (NE China)
var. formosana: Ovary and fruit pubescent (Taiwan).
„ This species is widely cultivated in N China, where the roots are used as the important traditional Chinese medicine “bai zhi” and as a substitute, known as “dong bei da huo,” for the traditional Chinese medicine “du huo” (see Angelica biserrata). Two cultivars are common: A. dahurica ‘Hangbaizhi’ and A. dahurica ‘Qibaizhi.’ “
„Angelica dahurica… root has been most frequently prescribed as a sedative and an analgesic in Chinese medicine.
The 80% aqueous MeOH extracts from the root of Angelica dahurica, found to inhibit the activities of GABA degradative enzymes GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH), were fractionated using EtOAc, n-BuOH and H2O. Repeated column chromatography for the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions led to the isolation of two new coumarins, oxypeucedanin hydrate-3′′′′-butyl ether and isopraeroside IV along with six known coumarins, isoimperatorin, imperatorin, phellopterin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, nodakenin and 3′′-hydroxymarmesinin, and two polyacetylenes, falcarindiol and octadeca-1,9-dien- 4,6-diyn-3,8,18-triol. Of the isolated pure compounds, imperatorin and falcarindiol inactivated the GABA-T activities in both time- and concentration-dependent manners. The kinetic studies showed that imperatorin and falcarindiol reacted with the GABA-T with a second-order rate constant of 2.3 ± 0.2 mM−1 min−1 and 1.5 ± 0.1 mM−1 min−1, respectively. It is postulated that imperatorin and falcarindiol are able to elevate the neurotransmitter GABA levels in the central nervous system by an inhibitory action on the GABA degradative enzyme GABA-T.“
[In vitro GABA‐transaminase inhibitory compounds from the root of Angelica dahurica. Choi, S. Y., Ahn, E. M., Song, M. C., Kim, D. W., Kang, J. H., Kwon, O. S., Baek, N. I., Phytotherapy Research, Vol.19(10), 2005, 839-845]
From „the dried mature fruits of A.dahurica, which is one of the most popular traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) to treat frontal headache, toothache, rhinitis, boils, carbuncles and skin diseases“, 23 furocoumarins were idientified.
[Rapid separation and identification of furocoumarins in Angelica dahurica by high‐performance liquid chromatography with diode‐array detection, time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry., Zhang, H., Gong, C., Lv, L., Xu, Y., Zhao, L., Zhu, Z., Zhang, G., Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 23(14), 2009, 2167-2175] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rcm.4123/full
Furanocoumarins present in the plant may sensitize the skin against UVA light and may lead to skin infections (photodermatitis). Photomutagenic and carcinogenic effects can not be ruled out if the skin is exposed to sunbaths and intensive UV radiation after taking the drug. It is essential to protect the skin against plant contact when working in the field.
[Kulturanleitung für Angelica dahurica zur Produktion der TCM-Droge Baizhi, Bayerische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft (LfL), 2010] https://www.lfl.bayern.de/mam/cms07/ipz/dateien/hugpf_kulturanleitung_f__r_angelica_dahurica.pdf
„The essential oil from root of A.dahurica cv. Qibaizhi… was extracted by water-steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS… Two hundreds and ninety chromatographic peaks were detected, among which 111 compounds have been identified. The contents of them made up 90.61% of the total essential oil… The main compounds in the essential oil were 3-carene (12.70%), beta-elemene (6.20%), beta-terpinene (3.53%), beta-myrcene (1.97%), gamma-elemene (1.82%), beta-phellandrene (1.65%), and beta-maaliene (1.61%)…“
[GC-MS analysis of essential oil from root of Angelica dahurica cv. Qibaizhi. Zhao, A., Yang, X., Yang, X., Wang, W., Tao, H., Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi= Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi= China journal of Chinese materia medica, Vol.36(5), 2011, 603]
„Angelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker ethanolic extract (ADEE)… inhibited cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, leading to the suppression of COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 and iNOS-derived production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These inhibitory effects of ADEE were accompanied by the reduced production of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-6. ADEE also inhibited nuclear factor κB (NFκB) translocation to the nucleus by interrupting inhibitor kappa Bα (IκBα) degradation. ADEE upregulated heme oxygenase 1 expression, and treatment with tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a selective inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the LPS-induced generation of proinflammatory cytokines. ADEE also induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in concanavalin-A-stimulated splenocytes. These results suggest that ADEE has anti-inflammatory activity, which acts via the suppression of the NF-κB pathway.“
[Anti-inflammatory activity of< i> Angelica dahurica</i> ethanolic extract on RAW264. 7 cells via upregulation of heme oxygenase-1. Lee, M. Y., Lee, J. A., Seo, C. S., Ha, H., Lee, H., Son, J. K., Shin, H. K., Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol.49(5), 2011, 1047-1055]
„In total 50 coumarins, including 32 linear furanocoumarins, 16 bifuranocoumarins and two non-furanocoumarins, were identified from the roots of A. dahurica.“ „…a traditional Chinese medicine that used for the treatment of headache, toothache, abscess, furunculosis and acne.“
[Simultaneous Characterisation of Fifty Coumarins from the Roots of Angelica dahurica by Off‐line Two‐dimensional High‐performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionisation Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Li, B., Zhang, X., Wang, J., Zhang, L., Gao, B., Shi, S., Tu, P., Phytochemical Analysis, Vol.25(3), 2014, 229-240]
Angelica dahurica, Botanischer Garten der Universität Wien
© Rolf Marschner (2018), www.botanische-spaziergaenge.at