Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge- syn.Teranchia anemarrhenaefolia Nakai. - Liliaceae
hana suge (jap.), 知母 zhi mu (chin.)
Erect perennial herb, native to northern China, Korea, cultivated in Japan, China, Korea; numerous basal leaves, grass-like, 10-60cm long; inflorecence a terminal spike, stalk 1m tall; flowers small, pink, pale purple, or white, fragrant, opening in the evening; fruit a globose capsule with 1-2 narrowly oblong-elliptic black seeds.
The rhizomes are used as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antidepressant in TCM.
The plant contains the coprostane type steroidal saponins anemarrhenasaponin I-IV, timosaponin BI, timosaponin BII, timosaponin AIII, and timosaponin F as well as and a xanthone C-glycoside, mangiferin.
[New steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge (Liliaceae)., Saito, S., Nagase, S., Ichinose, K., Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin, Vol.42(11), 1994, 2342-2345]
[Steroidal saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides and their effects on superoxide generation., Meng, Z. Y., Zhang, J. Y., Xu, S. X., Sugahara, K., Planta medica, Vol.65(7), 1999, 661-663]
„The antidiabetic activity of the rhizoma of Anemarrhena asphodeloides was investigated in KK-Ay mice, an animal model of genetic type 2 diabetes. The water extract of the rhizoma (AA) (90 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels from 570±29 to 401±59 mg/dl 7 h after oral administration (p<0.05) and also tended to reduce serum insulin levels in KK-Ay mice. AA-treated KK-Ay mice had significantly reduced blood glucose levels in an insulin tolerance test. Based on these results, the antidiabetic mechanism of AA may be due to decreased insulin resistance. In addition, the active components of AA were confirmed to be mangiferin and its glucoside.“
[Antidiabetic activity of the rhizoma of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and active components, mangiferin and its glucoside., Miura, T., Ichiki, H., Iwamoto, N., Kato, M., Kubo, M., Sasaki, H., Tanigawa, K., Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol.24(9), 2001, 1009-1011]
„A.asphodeloides inhibited the growth of the gastric cancer cell lines MKN45 and KATO-III and induced apoptosis. The apoptosis of MKN45 and KATO-III cells induced by A. asphodeloides was associated with the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, followed by an increase in caspase 3-like activity.“
[Growth inhibition and apoptosis of gastric cancer cell lines by Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge., Takeda, Y., Togashi, H., Matsuo, T., Shinzawa, H., Takeda, Y., Takahashi, T., Journal of gastroenterology, Vol.36(2), 2001, 79-90]
„Ethanol extract of the roots of Anemarrhena asphodeloides contains a substance, TH2 [Anemarrhena asphodeloides extract], that stimulates insulin secretion both at 3.3 and 16.7 mM glucose in islets of normal Wistar and diabetic GK rats. The mechanism behind TH2-stimulated insulin secretion involves an effect on the exocytotic machinery of the B-cell, mediated via pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi (or Ge-) proteins.“
[Insulin secretion is stimulated by ethanol extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides in isolated islet of healthy Wistar and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats., Hoa, N.K., Phan, D.V., Thuan, N.D., Ostenson, C.G., Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, Vol.112(9), 2004, 520-525]
Anemarsaponin B from the rhizomes of A.asphodeloides was found to have an anti-inflammatory effect, possibly via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.
[Anti-inflammatory effect of anemarsaponin B isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages is mediated by negative regulation of the nuclear factor-κB and p38 pathways., Kim, J.Y., Shin, J.S., Ryu, J.H., Kim, S.Y., Cho, Y.W., Choi, J.H., Lee, K.T., Food and chemical toxicology, Vol.47(7), 2009, 1610-1617]
Used in TCM as decoction to treat feaver as symptom of infectious diseases like pneumonia, tuberculosis, typhoid and scarlet fever, but efficacy has not been established.
[Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Springer 2010]