Amyris balsamifera L. - Rutaceae - balsam torchwood, West Indian rosewood, candlewood, Westindisches Sandelholz, Amyrisbaum
Small tree, up to 4 m high, native to the Caribbean; leaves opposite, with 3-5 leaflets, lanceolate to ovate, acuminate at apex; flowers small, white; drupe oblong-ovoid, black.
„The trunks of Amyris species exude elemi, a type of balsam (oleoresin) that contains elemic acids, liquid sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes such as α- and β-amyrin among other components.“ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amyris
„It grows in the Caribbean area and along the Gulf of Mexico. The oil has nothing to do with sandalwood oil, the odour is different and not nearly as attractive, although it is pleasantly woody with a balsamic touch. It is much cheaper than sandalwood oil and is used as a fixative in perfumes.“ http://www.bojensen.net/EssentialOilsEng/EssentialOils02/EssentialOils02.htm
„Six sesquiterpenes were isolated and identified from the essential oil of the wood of Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae): 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, α-agarofuran, 4-hydroxydihydroagarofuran, valerianol, β-eudesmol, elemol.“
[Sesquiterpenes from essential oil of Amyris balsamifera. Michel Rohmer, Anne-Catherine Schwartz, Robert Anton, Phytochemistry, Vol. 16 (6) 1977, 773–774]
„The essential oil composition of Amyris balsamifera was investigated by GC-MS. Major constituents were separated by fractional distillation and various chromatographic techniques, and identified by mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and/or chemical reactions. The oil consisted of 17.5% sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and 82.5% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Major compounds were β-sesquiphellandrene, elemol, 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, γ-eudesmol, valerianol, α-eudesmol, 7-epi-α-eudesmol and β-eudesmol.“
[Essential oil of Amyris balsamifera, Teris A. Van Beek, Roelof Kleis, Maarten A. Posthumus, Albertus Van Veldhuizen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 28 (7) 1989, 1909-1911]
Main components of commercial amyris oils were valerianol/β-eudesmol (23.3-33.3%), 7-epi-α-eudesmol (6.7-14.6%), α-elemol (8.3-10.7%), γ-eudesmol (5.2-7.7%) and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (5.7-7.2%).
https://www.planttherapy.com/amyris-essential-oil GC/MS provided, retrieved 2019-05-04.
Amyris balsamifera L., Descourtilz, M.E., Flore médicale des Antilles, vol.3 t.211 (1827)