Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneid. - syn. Simmondsia californica Nutt.; Buxus chinensis Link - Simmondsiaceae
jojoba, Jojoba

Dioecious, much-branched desert shrub, up to 2m high, native to southwestern North America (Sonora, Mojave, Baja California), cultivated elsewhere (Africa, Australia); leaves opposite, oval; flower small, greenish-yellow, male flowers in axillary clusters, female ones solitary.

„Despite its scientific name Simmondsia chinensis, Jojoba does not originate in China; the botanist Johann Link, originally named the species Buxus chinensis, after misreading a collection label „Calif“ as „China“… Jojoba is grown for the liquid wax (commonly called jojoba oil) in its seeds… Jojoba wax is used predominantly for pharmaceutical compounds, specially for skin products. “

„Cyanogenic glucosides in jojoba seeds may function as a defense in seed predation. The development of detoxification mechanisms by P. baileyi could have been a coevolutionary response to the development of seed toxicity in jojoba. Biogeographically their distributions are broadly overlapping. Jojoba seed storage by P. baileyi may function to disperse seeds and facilitate germination and seedling survival. It is hypothesized that jojoba seed toxicity is an important factor in resource allocation among coexisting seed—eating rodents in jojoba habitats.“
[Differential Acceptance of Toxic Jojoba Seed (Simmondsia Chinensis) by Four Sonoran Desert Heteromyid Rodents., Sherbrooke, W. C., Ecology, Vol.57(3), 1976, 596-602]

„Jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis) contains approximately 15% glucosides identified as simmondsin, 5-demethyl simmondsin, didemethyl simmondsin, along with simmondsin 2′-ferulate, 4-demethyl simmondsin 2′-ferulate, and 5-demethyl simmondsin ferulate.“
[4-Demethyl simmondsin from Simmondsia chinensis, Van Boven, M., Busson, R., Cokelaere, M., Flo, G., Decuypere, E., Industrial crops and products, Vol.12(3), 2000, 203-208]

„Simmondsin, 2-(cyanomethylene)-3 hydroxy 4,5 dimethoxy cyclohexyl beta-D-glucoside, from jojoba meal reduces food intake in rats. We investigated the mechanism of action simmondsin, by studying the effects of fasting or of vagotomy on the food intake reduction. The food intake reduction was significantly less in fasted rats than in non-fasted rats. The reduction of food intake was also significantly diminished after vagotomy. The results of the present experiments suggest that simmondsin reduces intake of food in rats through the augmentation of satiety, in part vagally mediated.“
[The vagus nerve is involved in the anorexigenic effect of simmondsin in the rat., Flo, G., Van Boven, M., Vermaut, S., Daenens, P., Decuypere, E., Cokelaere, M., Appetite, Vol.34(2), 2000, 147-151]

„Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, β-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained γ-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by α-tocopherol (20.3 %). β-tocopherol as well as δ-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.“
[Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds., El-Mallah, M. H., El-Shami, S. M., Journal of oleo science, Vol.58(11), 2009, 543-548]


simmondsia_chinensis_link_c._k._schneid.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2015/06/13 11:40 (Externe Bearbeitung)